OVERVIEW OF OIL
Nigeria's proven oil reserves are estimated by the United States Energy Information Administration (EIA) at between 16 and 22 billion barrels (2.5×109 and 3.5×109 m3), but other sources claim there could be as much as 35.3 billion barrels (5.61×109 m3). Its reserves make Nigeria the tenth most petroleum-rich nation, and by the far the most affluent in Africa. In mid-2001 its crude oil production was averaging around 2,200,000 barrels (350,000 m3) per day. It is expected that the industry will continue to be profitable based on an average bench mark oil price of $85-$90 per barrel.
Nearly all of the country's primary reserves are concentrated in and around the delta of the Niger River, but off-shore rigs are also prominent in the well-endowed coastal region. Nigeria is one of the few major oil-producing nations still capable of increasing its oil output. Unlike most of the other OPEC countries, Nigeria is not projected to exceed peak production until at least 2009. The reason for Nigeria's relative unproductivity is primarily OPEC regulations on production to regulate prices on the international market. More recently, production has been disrupted intermittently by the protests of the Niger Delta's inhabitants, who feel they are being exploited.
OIL REFINING NOT ROCKET SCIENCE
separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.
At an oil refinery, the various hydrocarbons are separated into mixtures of compounds with similar boiling points. This is done by a process called fractional distillation. We say that the crude oil is separated into fractions. In order to understand this process, we can look at what happens when we distil crude oil in the lab, .
Fractional distillation of crude oil. Because they have different boiling points, the substances in crude oil can be separated using fractional distillation. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours allowed to condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column.
the mini refinery called the biafran pot is currently kept in the Nigerian war museum umuahia abia state.
Nigeria's total petroleum refining capacity is 445,000 barrels (70,700 m3) per day, however, only 240,000 barrels (38,000 m3) per day was allotted during the 1990s. Subsequently, crude oil production for refineries was reduced further to as little as 75,000 barrels (11,900 m3) per day during the regime of Sanni Abacha.
More than 47 years since the Nigerian civil war ended, Mr. F. N. C Oragwu, one of the Biafran scientists has disclosed how he and others fabricated weapons and built airports and refineries for the defunct republic.
Hundreds of this heavily and carefully crafted crude oil refinery were built by the Biafrans. It brought refined oil, diesel, kerosene, petrol and aviation fuel for military, government, public and private use.
A 1960 graduate of Physics from the University of Glasgow in Scotland, Oragwu said he was a key figure in the Research and Production section of Biafra.
“I will give you the true story about the civil war because I was involved very actively. Not only was I active, I was also one of the key figures in Research and Production (RAP), which was a body of scientists, engineers and technicians that produced all the weapons used to fight the war,” he gan in an exclusive interview with Daily Sun.
He continued: “Before the war, the whole eastern Nigeria had no factory that produced weapons and they could not import weapons from anywhere during the war because they were blockaded. So, I can tell you because I am one of the surviving people in the team; I am almost 82 years old now.”
Nigeria has a total of 159 oil fields and 1481 wells in operation according to the Department of Petroleum Resources. The most productive region of the nation is the coastal Niger Delta Basin in the Niger Delta or "South-south" region which encompasses 78 of the 159 oil fields. Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of 1990, these small unproductive fields accounted for 62.1% of all Nigerian production. This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced 37.9% of Nigeria's petroleum at that time.
As a result of the numerous small fields, an extensive and well-developed pipeline network has been engineered to transport the crude oil. Also because of the lack of highly productive fields, money from the jointly operated (with the federal government) companies is constantly directed towards petroleum exploration and production.
Nigeria's petroleum is classified mostly as "light" and "sweet", as the oil is largely free of sulphur. Nigeria is the largest producer of sweet oil in OPEC. This sweet oil is similar in composition to petroleum extracted from the North Sea. This crude oil is known as "Bonny light". Names of other Nigerian crudes, all of which are named according to export terminal, are Qua Ibo, Escravos blend, Brass River, Forcados, and Pennington Anfan.
As recently as 2010, Nigeria provided about 10% of overall U.S. oil imports and ranked as the fifth-largest source for oil imports in the U.S. However, Nigeria ceased exports to the US in July 2014 because of the impact of shale production in America; India is now the largest consumer of Nigerian oil.
There are six petroleum exportation terminals in the country. Shell owns two, while Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and Agip own one each. Shell also owns the Forcados Terminal, which is capable of storing 13 million barrels (2,100,000 m3) of crude oil in conjunction with the nearby Bonny Terminal. Mobil operates primarily out of the Qua Iboe Terminal in Akwa Ibom State, while Chevron owns the Escravos Terminal located in Delta State and has a storage capacity of 3.6 million barrels (570,000 m3). Agip operates the Brass Terminal in Brass, a town 113 kilometres (70 miles) southwest of Port Harcourt and has a storage capacity of 3,558,000 barrels (565,700 m3). Texaco operates the Pennington Terminal
Nigeria’s oil revenue has totaled $340 billion in exports since the 1970s and it is the fifth largest producer. Though Nigeria is a major oil exporter, it imports most of its gasoline, and when fuel subsidies were lifted in January 2012, fuel increased from roughly $1.70 per gallon to $3.50. Nigeria produces a form of oil ideal for the United States, has huge reserves, and has increased its production to 2.8 million barrels (450,000 m3) of oil a day. But this, some say, is all a resource curse that is hurting Nigeria and disadvantaging her people
ARTICLE PUT TOGETHER by Abiel John Balogun
Editor engine.com.ng discovery.com.ng
Biafran Made Tank