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10 Oldest State Capitol Buildings Still in Use

State capitol buildings are landmarks of every capital city across the United States. Many of the current state capitols have been in continuous use since they were first constructed in the 18th and 19th centuries. As such old buildings, all of the state capitols on this list have had extensive renovations over the years, but the overall style of the buildings has remained the same. Of all the state capitol buildings, these 10 are the oldest and all of them are still in use and open to the public for tours as well.

10. Tennessee State Capitol

Built: 1845 – 1859
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Nashville, Tennessee
Architect: William Strickland

Tennessee State Capitolphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Tennessee State Capitol was built on the site of the former Holy Rosary Cathedral (no longer extant), which was the first Roman Catholic cathedral built in Nashville. The State Capitol was designed by renowned Philadelphia architect William Strickland and it was modeled after a Greek Ionic temple. Following Strickland’s sudden death in 1854, the Tennessee State Capitol’s construction was continued by his son Francis. Today, the Tennessee State Capitol serves as the home of the Tennessee General Assembly and the location of the governor’s office.

Did You Know?

The American Society of Civil Engineers has designated the Tennessee State Capitol as a civil engineering landmark in recognition of its innovative construction, which made unusually extensive use of stone and was an early example of the use of structural iron.


9. Ohio Statehouse

Built: 1839 – 1861
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Columbus, Ohio
Architect: Multiple

Ohio Statehousephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Ohio Statehouse‘s construction started in 1839, but did not finish until much later in 1861, due to various setbacks including a cholera epidemic, fires, and general setbacks. In 1838,  Ohio’s government held a competition to select the design for the new statehouse. Three winners were selected: first prize was awarded to Henry Walter of Cincinnati, the second to Martin Thompson of New York, and the third to painter Thomas Cole, also of New York. However, due to the numerous setbacks, the Ohio Statehouse was redesigned several times before it was completed.

Did You Know?

During an eight year lapse in construction (from 1840 to 1848) on the Ohio Statehouse, the completed basement and foundations were actually filled in with soil and Capitol Square was used as a pasture.


8. Vermont State House

Built: 1833 – 1838
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Montpelier, Vermont
Architect: Thomas Silloway

Vermont State Housephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The current Vermont State House was built on the same site as the first State House originally built in 1808. This (current) State House was designed by Thomas Silloway, who amplified the design of the second State House structure designed by Ammi B. Young. Young’s State House was almost completely destroyed by a fire in 1857, but Silloway managed to salvage Doric portico, as well as portions of the granite walls. The general style of the building is Neoclassical and Greek Revival and is furnished in American Empire, Renaissance Revival, and Rococo Revival styles. Today the Vermont State House is the centerpiece of the Montpelier Historic District.

Did You Know?

Some of the marble floors of the Vermont State House contain fossils as the marble, which is from Lake Champlain, used to be part of a reef in a shallow sea 480 million years ago.


7. North Carolina State Capitol

Built: 1833 – 1840
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Raleigh, North Carolina
Architect: Architectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis; William Nichols, Sr. and his son William Nichols, Jr., Town and Davis, and then David Paton

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The current North Carolina State Capitol building was built in 1833 after the first North Carolina State House burned down in 1831. The North Carolina State Capitol was worked on by a number of architects and designers, but was primarily designed in a Greek Revival-style. The Capitol housed all of North Carolina’s state government until 1888. That year, the Supreme Court and State Library moved into a separate building. Currently, the North Carolina State Capitol is undergoing restoration, which started in September 2019.

Did You Know?

The North Carolina State Capitol has a lot of statues on its grounds, including a replica of the original George Washington statue by Antonio Canova, which was destroyed by the 1831 fire.


6. Maine State House

Built: 1829 – 1832
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Augusta, Maine
Architect: Charles Bulfinch

photo source: Flickr via David Wilson

The Maine State House was completed in 1832, just one year after Augusta became the state’s capital. The building was made using Maine granite and is based on the design of the Massachusetts State House to honor the two states’ history – Maine was part of Massachusetts before it gained statehood in 1820. For several decades following the completion of major renovations in 1911, the Maine State House remained mostly untouched, except for minor repairs. The building was finally updated in the late 1990s and the old dome was replaced in 2014.

Did You Know?

A gilded statue of Minerva, the Lady of Wisdom, designed by William Clark Noble sits atop the dome of the Maine State House – she was also re-gilded and fixed up during the 2014 dome reconstruction.


5. New Hampshire State House

Built: 1816 – 1819
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Concord, New Hampshire
Architect: Stuart Park

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Discussions over a proper state capitol building in New Hampshire began in 1814, but because of the political climate of the U.S. at the time, construction on the New Hampshire State House did not start until 1816. Although it is not the oldest state capitol building, the New Hampshire State House is the oldest state house in the nation in which the legislature still occupies its original chambers. Like the dome on the Massachusetts State House, the New Hampshire State House dome is gilded with gold leaf. To keep the dome looking fresh, it is re-gilded every few decades, most recently in 2016.

Did You Know?

The New Hampshire State House, which rises approximately 150 feet into the air, is still the highest architectural point in the city of Concord.


4. Massachusetts State House

Built: 1795 – 1798
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Boston, Massachusetts
Architect: Charles Bulfinch

Massachusetts State Housephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Massachusetts State House was designed by American architect Charles Bulfinch and was completed in 1798. This capitol building is considered a masterpiece of Federal architecture and among Bulfinch’s finest works, and was designated a National Historic Landmark for its architectural significance. The most recognizable feature of the Massachusetts State House is its stunning golden dome, which is gilded in 23 karat gold leaf. The last time that the Massachusetts State House was expanded was in 1917 when the east and west wings, designed by architects Sturgis, Bryant, Chapman & Andrews, were completed.

Did You Know?

During World War II, the golden dome of the Massachusetts State House was painted gray so it would not attract the attention of possible enemy ships at sea or enemy planes overhead.


3. New Jersey State House

Built: 1792
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Trenton, New Jersey
Architect: Jonathon Doane

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The New Jersey State House is the third oldest state capitol building still in use and dates back to 1792.  The State House was designed by Jonathon Doane on a 3.75 acre-site that cost 250 British pounds, about $400 today. Like all of the oldest state capitol buildings, the New Jersey State House was expanded several times to meet the growing demands of New Jersey and its citizens. The building houses both chambers of the Legislature (the Senate and the General Assembly), as well as offices for the Governor, Lieutenant Governor and several state government departments.

Did You Know?

The New Jersey State House is the closest capitol building to a state border of any state capitol, with the bridge to Pennsylvania located only a few blocks away.


2. Virginia State Capitol

Built: 1785 – 1788
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Richmond, Virginia
Architect: Thomas Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clérisseau

Virginia State Capitolphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Virginia State Capitol building was designed by Thomas Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clérisseau after the Virginia legislature voted to move the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond in 1779. The Capitol’s design is based on the Maison Carrée in Nîmes, France. Besides the Vermont State House, the Virginia State Capitol is the only other state capitol building to accurately copy an ancient model.  Construction began in 1785 and the Virginia General Assembly held its first session in the building in 1788.

Did You Know?

The Virginia State Capitol is one of only eleven Capitols in the United States without an external dome – the others are Capitols of Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon and Tennessee.


1. Maryland State House

Built: 1772 – 1797
Still in Use:  Yes
Location: Annapolis, Maryland
Architect: Joseph Horatio Anderson

Maryland State Housephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Construction of the Maryland State House began in 1772, making it the oldest state capitol building still in use. Due to the ongoing American Revolutionary War, the Maryland State House was not completed until 1797. The building was designed by Joseph Horatio Anderson, who also designed St Anne’s Church across the State Circle.

Although the Maryland State House was still under construction when the Continental Congress came to Annapolis in 1783, they used the Old Senate Chamber – one of the only sections completed at the time – to host their meetings. In 1784, the Continental Congress signed the Treaty of Paris – the document that officially ended the Revolutionary War – in the Maryland State House.

Did You Know?

The Maryland State House is topped by the largest wooden dome in the United States constructed without nails.

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10 Oldest Living Baseball Hall of Famers

Baseball is one of America’s greatest pastimes and some of the greatest athletes of all time have been baseball players. All of the men on this list were inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame for their achievements as players, coaches, managers, or Commissioner of Baseball in Bud Selig’s case. Although these Hall of Famers are in their 80s and 90s, many of them are still actively involved with the MLB, holding various executive positions or advisory roles.

As of July 2020, the information on this list is as accurate as possible and will be updated as needed.

10. Bill Mazeroski (September 5, 1936 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 83 years, 9 months, 26 days
Birthplace:  Wheeling, West Virginia, USA
Years Active: 1956 – 1972
Team(s): Pittsburgh Pirates
Position: Second Baseman
Year Inducted into HOF: 2001

Bill Mazeroskiphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Bill Mazeroski spent 17 seasons as the second baseman for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Mazeroski Mazeroski is widely regarded as one of the best fielders ever, at any position. He quickly became known for his defensive prowess and earned his first of eight Gold Glove Awards in 1958. Following his playing career, Mazeroski spent a few years as a third-base coach for the Pirates and the Seattle Mariners. Mazeroski was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2001. During the induction ceremony, Mazeroski was so overcome with emotion, that he was unable to deliver his speech and ended up apologizing to those who “had to come all the way up here to hear this crap!”

Did You Know?

During the 1960 World Series, which the Pittsburgh Pirates won, Bill Mazeroski hit a walk-off home run in Game 7, the only game 7 walk-off homer in World Series history.


9. Sandy Koufax (December 30, 1935 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 84 years, 6 months, 2 days
Birthplace:  Brooklyn, New York, USA
Years Active: 1955 – 1966
Team(s): Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers
Position: Pitcher
Year Inducted into HOF: 1972

Sandy Koufaxphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Sandy Koufax is another baseball legend who is still alive and well. Koufax, who has been hailed as one of the greatest pitchers in baseball history, played with the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers for 12 seasons. Unfortunately, Koufax’s outstanding career was cut short when he developed arthritis in the his left elbow. Despite ending his career early, Koufax’s 2,396 career strikeouts are ranked 7th in history. Koufax was the first major league pitcher to pitch four no-hitters and the eighth pitcher to pitch a perfect game in baseball history.

Did You Know?

Sandy Koufax won three Cy Young Awards in 1963, 1965, and 1966, by unanimous votes, making him the first three-time Cy Young winner in baseball history.


8. Bob Gibson (November 9, 1935 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 84 years, 7 months, 22 days
Birthplace:  Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Years Active: 1959 – 1975
Team(s): St. Louis Cardinals
Position: Pitcher
Year Inducted into HOF: 1981

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Bob Gibson is a former baseball pitcher played 17 seasons with the St. Louis Cardinals. Although he was often sick as a child, Gibson got stronger and excelled in sports, particularly baseball and basketball. Gibson was so skilled in both sports that when he started his professional career he briefly played for the Harlem Globetrotters while also playing for the Cardinals. Obviously, Gibson decided to only continue his baseball career, which ended with 251 wins, 3,117 strikeouts, and a 2.91 earned run average (ERA). Gibson is also a nine-time All-Star and two-time World Series champion. Additionally, Gibson won two Cy Young Awards and the 1968 National League (NL) Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award.

Did You Know?

In 1965, Bob Gibson won the first of nine consecutive Golden Glove awards.


7. Bud Selig (July 30, 1934 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 85 years, 11 months, 2 days
Birthplace:  Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Years Active: 1992 – 2015 (Commissioner of Baseball); 2015 – present (Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball)
Team(s): N/A
Position: 9th Commissioner of Baseball; Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball
Year Inducted into HOF: 2017

Bud Seligphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Bud Selig is the only Hall of Famer on this list who was not a former player, manager, or coach. Instead, Selig is known for being the 9th Commissioner of Baseball as well as the first Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball, a role that was created specificially for him in 2015. Before becoming acting commissioner in 1992, Selig was part owner of the Milwaukee Brewers and after he accepted the role of Baseball Commissioner, Selig transferred his ownership to his daughter. Originally, Selig’s role as Commissioner was set to expire in 2012, but he decided to stay on past his 80th birthday. Selig finally retired at the beginning of 2015.

Did You Know?

Bud Selig’s tenure as Commissioner of Baseball was marred by some controversies, most notably The Mitchell Report, which revealed that the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs was widespread among players.


6. Luis Aparicio (April 29, 1934 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 86 years, 2 months, 2 days
Birthplace:  Maracaibo, Venezuela
Years Active: 1956 – 1973
Team(s): Chicago White Sox, Baltimore Orioles, and Boston Red Sox
Position: Shortstop
Year Inducted into HOF: 1984

Luis Apariciophoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Luis Aparicio, who hails from Venezuela, is the only foreign-born Hall of Famer on this list. Aparicio, nicknamed “Little Louie” is the the first player from Venezuela to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame. From 1956 to 1973, Aparicio played as a shortstop, mostly for the Chicago White Sox, but also for the Baltimore Orioles and Boston Red Sox. Aparicio was known for his exceptional defensive and base stealing skills. MLB legend Ted Williams called Aparicio “the best shortstop he had ever seen.”

Did You Know?

There is a sports complex in Luis Aparicio’s hometown, Maracaibo, Venezuela, that is named after the legendary shortstop.


5. Hank Aaron (February 5, 1934 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 86 years, 4 months, 26 days
Birthplace:  Mobile, Alabama, USA
Years Active: 1954 – 1976
Team(s): Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves and Milwaukee Brewers
Position: Right Fielder
Year Inducted into HOF: 1982

Hank Aaronphoto source: Flickr via Baseball Collection

Like a few of the other Hall of Famers on this list, Hank Aaron is often called one of the greatest baseball players in history. Aaron played 21 seasons for the Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves in the National League (NL) and two seasons for the Milwaukee Brewers in the American League (AL). For most of his career, Aaron was a right fielder although he did sometimes appear in other infield and outfield positions. Since his retirement, Aaron has held various executive roles with the Atlanta Braves, including Senior Vice President.

Did You Know?

Hank Aaron holds the record for the most All-Star Game selections (25) and is tied with Willie Mays and Stan Musial for the most All-Star Games played (24). Aaron is also one of only four players to have at least 17 seasons with 150 or more hits.


4. Whitey Herzog (November 9, 1931 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 88 years, 7 months, 22 days
Birthplace:  New Athens, Illinois, USA
Years Active: 1956 – 1963 as player; 1973 – 1990 as manager
Team(s): Washington Senators, Kansas City Athletics, Baltimore Orioles, and Detroit Tigers; Texas Rangers, California Angels, Kansas City Royals, and St. Louis Cardinals (manager)
Position: Outfielder and Manager
Year Inducted into HOF: 2010

Whitey Herzogphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Although Whitey Herzog spent seven years as an outfielder, he is better known for his managerial career with the various teams. After his playing career ended, Herzog went on to perform a variety of roles in Major League Baseball, including scout, manager, coach, general manager, and farm system director. When Herzog was manager for the Kansas City Royals, he led the team to three consecutive playoff appearances from 1976 to 1978. Then as a St. Louis Cardinals manager, Herzog guided the team to win the 1982 World Series.

Did You Know?

At the end of Whitey Herzog’s managerial career, he produced1,281 regular-season wins.


3. Willie Mays (May 6, 1931 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 89 years, 1 month, 26 days
Birthplace:  Westfield, Alabama, USA
Years Active: 1951 – 1973
Team(s): New York/San Francisco Giants and New York Mets
Position: Center Fielder
Year Inducted into HOF: 1979

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Willie Mays is considered one of the greatest baseball players of all time and was inducted in the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1979 for his achievements. Mays played Major League Baseball for nearly 22 seasons and spent most of his time with the New York/San Francisco Giants. He finished his career with the New York Mets. Mays’ career was filled with many achievements, including two National League (NL) Most Valuable Player (MVP) awards, 660 home runs – third at the time of his retirement and currently fifth all-time – and won a record-tying 12 Gold Glove awards beginning in 1957, when the award was introduced.

Did You Know?

Willie Mays hit over 50 home runs in 1955 and 1965, representing the longest time span between 50-plus home run seasons for any player in Major League Baseball history.


2. Whitey Ford (October 21, 1928 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 91 years, 8 months, 11 days
Birthplace:  New York City, New York, USA
Years Active: 1950 – 1967
Team(s): New York Yankees
Position: Pitcher
Year Inducted into HOF: 1974

Whitey Fordphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Besides Tommy Lasorda, Whitey Ford is the only other living Baseball Hall of Famer in his 90s. Ford spent his entire 16-year career with the New York Yankees and since Yogi Berra’s death in 2015, Ford has been dubbed “The Greatest Living Yankee.” Ford was known for his calm demeanor even during high pressure situations. This combined with his skill led him to rise from the No. 4 pitcher on the Yankees to No.1 by the end of his career.

Did You Know?

Whitey Ford is a ten-time MLB All-Star and six-time World Series champion.


1. Tommy Lasorda (September 22, 1927 – Present)

Current Age (as of July 2020): 92 years, 9 months, 9 days
Birthplace:  Norristown, Pennsylvania, USA
Years Active: 1954 – 1956 as a player; 1973 – 1976 as a coach; 1976 – 1996 as a manager
Team(s): Brooklyn Dodgers and Kansas City Athletics; Los Angeles Dodgers (coach and manager)
Position: Pitcher, Coach, and Manager
Year Inducted into HOF: 1997

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

At 92, Tommy Lasorda is currently the oldest living Baseball Hall of Famer. Lasorda only played baseball for two years before briefly coaching the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 1970s. Most of Lasorda’s career was spent as the manager of the Los Angeles Dodgers. Following his retirement, Lasorda held various executive positions within the Dodgers’ organization.

Currently, Lasorda Special Advisor to the Chairman where his responsibilities include scouting, evaluating and teaching minor league players, acting as an advisor and ambassador for the Dodgers’ international affiliations, and representing the organization. Lasorda has been with the Dodgers for over 70 seasons, the longest tenure anyone has had with the team.

Did You Know?

In 2000, Tommy Lasorda came out of retirement to manage the United States team at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia – the team won the gold medal.

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6 Oldest Living Vice Presidents of the United States (2020)

Although the vice president of the United States of America is the second-highest office in the executive branch just behind the president, sometimes vice presidents seem to just fade in the background, overshadowed by a strong president. This makes it easy to forget that the vice president actually wields a lot of power and influence and that choosing the right running mate can often make or break a candidate’s bid for the presidency.

Currently there are six living vice presidents, which is a lot. There have only been two times in history with seven living vice presidents (i.e., the incumbent and six former vice presidents): January 1993 to April 1994 and January 2017 to November 2018.

As of June 2020, the information on this list is as accurate as possible and will be updated as needed.

6. Mike Pence (June 7, 1959 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 61 years, 23 days
In Office:  January 20, 2017 – Present
President: Donald Trump
[ Political Party: Republican

Mike Pencephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Mike Pence is the current vice president of the United States under Donald Trump. Like Trump, Pence has been a politically controversial figure. Known for being a staunch Christian conservative, Pence has encountered fierce resistance from moderate members of his party (Republican), the business community, and LGBTQ+ advocates.

Before becoming vice president in 2017, Pence served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013. Pence went on to become the 50th governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017. As governor, Pence intinitiated the largest tax cut in Indiana’s history and also signed bills intended to heavily restrict abortions. As vice president, Pence has continued to push his conservative agenda and while campaigning during the 2016 presidential election, Pence was declared the most conservative vice-presidential candidate in the last 40 years, according to a FiveThirtyEight rating of candidates’ ideology.

Did You Know?

Surprisingly, Mike Pence admitted that he was a Democrat when he was younger and that he voted for Jimmy Carter, not Ronald Reagan in the 1980 presidential election.


5. Al Gore (March 31, 1948 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 72 years, 2 months, 30 days
In Office:  January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
President: Bill Clinton
[ Political Party: Democratic

Al Gorephoto source: Wikimedia Commons


Al Gore was the 45th vice president under Bill Clinton and is also known for his environmentalism. In fact, Gore was one of the first prominent figures in the U.S. to speak publicly about the dangers of climate change. In 2007, Gore, along with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, won the Nobel Peace Prize for “informing the world of the dangers posed by climate change.”

After graduating from college, Gore was drafted and decided to enlist in the Army even though he was against the Vietnam War. Gore felt that it would help his father’s reelection efforts, which were rocky because Albert Gore Sr. was very vocal about his opposition to the Vietnam War – Albert Gore served in the U.S. House of Representatives as well as the Senate.

Following the war, Gore worked as an investigative reporter and then decided suddenly to run for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1976 when he found out that his father’s former seat in the House was about to be vacated. Gore served in Congress (in both the House and Senate) for the next 16 years before becoming Vice President in 1993.

Did You Know?

Before becoming vice president, Al Gore did attempt to run for president in 1988 but was defeated in the Democratic primaries by Michael Dukakis.


4. Dan Quayle (February 4, 1947 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 73 years, 4 months, 26 days
In Office:  January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
President: George H. W. Bush
[ Political Party: Republican

Dan Quaylephoto source: Wikimedia Commons


Dan Quayle was the 44th Vice President of the United States, serving under George H. W. Bush from 1989 – 1993. As vice president, Quayle made official visits to 47 countries and was appointed chairman of the National Space Council. Bush decided to keep Quayle as his vice president while running for a second term, but they lost to Bill Clinton and Al Gore.

While attending law school, Quayle became an investigator for the Consumer Protection Division of the Office of the Indiana Attorney General. Quayle also became an administrative assistant to Governor Edgar Whitcomb. Then in 1976, Quayle was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for Indiana’s 4th congressional district. A few years later, in 1980, Quayle became the youngest person ever elected to the Senate from the state of Indiana. Quayle continued in the Senate until he was chosen as Bush’s running mate in 1988. Quayle left political office after his time as vice president and moved to Arizona and worked as an investment banker.

Did You Know?

Dan Quayle is currently on the Board of Directors of Heckmann Corporation and is also the director of Aozora Bank, based in Tokyo, Japan.


3. Joe Biden (November 20, 1942 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 77 years, 7 months, 10 days
In Office:  January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017
President: Barack Obama
[ Political Party: Democratic

Joe Bidenphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Joe Biden was vice president under Barack Obama, but has been in the news more recently because he is the Democratic nominee for the 2020 presidential election. Unfortunately, Biden has also been under fire recently after former Biden staffer Tara Reade accused him of sexual assault. There have also been numerous accusations of inappropriate physical contact with women at public events such as embracing, kissing, gripping, or placing a hand on their shoulder.

After graduating from law school, Biden clerked at a Wilmington law firm headed by prominent local Republican William Prickett. At this time, Biden did consider himself a Republican, but later changed his mind because he didn’t like Republican presidential candidate Richard Nixon. Biden continued to work as a public defender before becoming a senator in 1972. He was a senator from 1973 until he was selected as Obama’s vice president in 2008.

Did You Know?

As a child Joe Biden had a debilitating stutter, which he worked very hard to overcome. However, it has cropped up recently during his run for President and many people feel that this affected his performance in Democratic debates.


2. Dick Cheney (January 30, 1941 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 79 years, 5 months
In Office:  January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
President: George W. Bush
[ Political Party: Republican

Dick Cheneyphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Dick Cheney was the 46th Vice President and has often been cited as the most powerful vice president in American history. Cheney served under George W. Bush from 2001 – 2009. While Cheney might have held a lot of power, he was deeply unpopular and left office with an approval rating of just 13%.

Cheney began his political career as an intern for Congressman William A. Steiger, eventually working his way into the White House during the Nixon and Ford administrations. Following the Nixon and Ford presidencies, Cheney went on to hold various positions of power, including briefly serving as House minority whip in 1989 and secretary of defense under George H. W. Bush. During the Clinton years, Cheney was the Chairman and CEO of Halliburton Company before he was selected as George W. Bush’s vice president.

Did You Know?

In his free time, Dick Cheney is an avid hunter and fisher, his Secret Service code name was  “Angler,” and he made headlines in 2006 for accidentally shooting fellow hunter Harry Whittington in the face.


1. Walter Mondale (January 5, 1928 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 92 years, 5 months, 25 days
In Office:  January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
President: Jimmy Carter
[ Political Party: Democratic

Walter Mondalephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

 

At 92 years of age, Walter Mondale is currently the oldest living former Vice President of the United States. Mondale served under Jimmy Carter, who is also still alive and in his 90s! Before being selected by Carter as his Vice President, Mondale was a Minnesota senator from 1964 to 1976. While in the Senate, Mondale supported consumer protection, fair housing, tax reform, and the desegregation of schools.

Following Carter’s defeat in 1980, Mondale decided to run for President in 1984. Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination and campaigned for a nuclear freeze, the Equal Rights Amendment, an increase in taxes, and a reduction of U.S. public debt. However, Mondale lost to the incumbents Reagan and Bush. Following this loss, Mondale Mondale joined the Minnesota-based law firm Dorsey & Whitney and the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.

Mondale briefly tried to become a senator again, but lost the election. He returned to Dorsey & Whitney and also took up a part-time teaching position at the University of Minnesota’s Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs. Despite no longer being a politician, Mondale has remained active in the Democratic Party.

Did You Know?

From 1993 to 1996, Walter Mondale served as the United States Ambassador to Japan and was appointed to the position by President Bill Clinton.

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10 Oldest Airlines Still Operating in the World

Before the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic brought the world to a standstill, over 4.5 billion people flew around the world for business, pleasure, and everything in between. In recent years, air travel has increased significantly even though the cost of flying has only gone up. As the world becomes more mobile, more airlines have sprung up to meet the growing demand. However, some airlines, including some of the world’s largest, have been around since the early days of commercial aviation. All of the airlines on this list date back to the early 20th century.

As of June 2020, this list is as accurate as possible and all of the airlines on this list were still in operation at the time of publication.

10. Air Serbia

Date Founded: June 17, 1927
Headquarters:  Belgrade, Serbia
Primary Hub(s): Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport; Morava Airport; and Niš Constantine the Great Airport
Fleet Size: 21
Destinations: 63

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Air Serbia began in 1927 when Aeroput was founded as the flag carrier of Yugoslavia. Aeroput was in operation until 1947. That year, the airline rebranded as Jugoslovenski Aerotransport (“Yugoslav Air Transport”) or Jat Airways. Even after Yugoslavia became Serbia, the Jat Airways branding stuck around until 2013 when its name was finally changed to Air Serbia. Although Air Serbia is a fairly small airline, it does service over 60 destinations in 32 countries, including the U.S., France, Egypt, the UK, and many more.

Did You Know?

In 1967 Air Serbia (as Jat Airways) started its own catering service that was later used by Air France.


9. Grand Canyon Airlines

Date Founded: 1927
Headquarters:  Tusayan, Arizona, USA
Primary Hub(s): Grand Canyon National Park Airport; Boulder City Airport; and Page Municipal Airport
Fleet Size: 21
Destinations: 3

Grand Canyon Airlinesphoto source: Flickr via Nan Palmero

Grand Canyon Airlines was founded as a small charter service in 1927 by J. Parker Van Zandt at Grand Canyon, Arizona. Initially, the company was called Scenic Airways, but it changed its name to Grand Canyon Airlines in 1930. As the airline’s name suggests, Grand Canyon Airlines primarily services the Grand Canyon area, offering sightseeing tours as well as essential services. According to Grand Canyon Airlines, it is now the largest and longest-running air tour service in the world.

Did You Know?

To celebrate the opening of the legendary Arizona Biltmore Hotel on February 23, 1929, Grand Canyon Airlines dropped a wooden key onto the roof of the hotel’s ballroom. That wooden key is still on display above the fireplace of the Biltmore History Room.


8. American Airlines

Date Founded: April 15, 1926
Headquarters:  Fort Worth, Texas, USA
Primary Hub(s): Charlotte; Chicago – O’Hare; Dallas/Fort Worth; Los Angeles; Miami; New York – JFK; New York – La Guardia; Philadelphia;
Fleet Size: 871
Destinations: 350

American Airlinesphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Although American Airlines wasn’t officially formed until 1930 from a collective of 82 small airlines, the company traces its history back to April 15, 1926. That day Charles Lindbergh, as a pilot for the Robertson Aircraft Corporation, made what American Airlines considers the company’s first flight carrying mail from St. Louis, Missouri, to Chicago, Illinois. Robertson Aircraft Corporation eventually merged with Colonial Air Transport and then acquired several other small airlines. Today, American Airlines has grown into the world’s largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenue passenger mile.

Did You Know?

In 1964, American Airlines became the first major passenger airline to hire a Black pilot, Dave Harris, who did not retire from piloting until 1994.


7. Delta Air Lines

Date Founded: May 2, 1925
Headquarters:  Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Primary Hub(s): Atlanta; Boston; Detroit; Los Angeles; Minneapolis/St. Paul; New York – JFK; New York – La Guardia; Salt Lake City; and Seattle/Tacoma
Fleet Size: 840
Destinations: 325

Delta Air Linesphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Delta Air Lines is the oldest airline from the United States still in operation. Delta was founded in 1925 as the world’s first aerial crop dusting operation called Huff Daland Dusters, Inc. Huff Daland quickly acquired more 18 planes and became the world’s largest privately-owned fleet at the time. In 1928, the company changed its name to Delta after the Mississippi Delta region. A year later, Delta started passenger operations. Since then, Delta has grown into the world’s second largest airline by number of scheduled passengers carried, revenue passenger-kilometers flown, and fleet size.

Did You Know?

Over its 95-year history, Delta Air Lines has made several firsts including becoming the first airline to offer jet training to its personnel in 1957, the first to offer complimentary meals on discounted coach flights in 1959, and in 2006 became the first major airline with in-seat, on-demand movies, games and live TV on a large portion of its domestic fleet.


6. Finnair

Date Founded: November 1, 1923
Headquarters:  Vantaa, Finland
Primary Hub(s): Helsinki Airport
Fleet Size: 84
Destinations: 132

Finnairphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Finnair is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland and yet another old airline from Europe. Originally known as Aero, Finnair was founded in1923 by consul Bruno Lucander. Lucander had previously run the Finnish operations of the Estonian airline Aeronaut. Following World War II, the Finnish State acquired a majority holding in Finnair and the Finnish government remains as the airline’s major shareholder.

Did You Know?

Finnair has a reputation for being one of the safest airlines in the world and it has not had a fatal or hull-loss accidents since 1963.


5. Czech Airlines

Date Founded: October 6, 1923
Headquarters:  Vokovich, Prague, Czech Republic
Primary Hub(s): Václav Havel Airport Pragu
Fleet Size: 14
Destinations: 25

Czech Airlinesphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Compared to many of the other airlines on this list, Czech Airlines is fairly small with only 14 planes in its fleet servicing 25 destinations. However, Czech Airlines is one of the world’s oldest continuously operating airlines and was founded in 1923 as Czechoslovak State Airlines (CSA). Initially, Czech Airlines only flew domestically, but added its first international route in 1930 from Prague to Bratislava, Croatia. After the Czechoslovak Federation broke up in the 1990s, Czech Airlines rebranded to its current name in 1995.

Did You Know?

Czech Airlines was the first airline in the world to fly regular jet-only routes (between Prague and Moscow).


4. Aeroflot

Date Founded: February 3, 1923
Headquarters:  Moscow, Russia
Primary Hub(s): Sheremetyevo International Airport
Fleet Size: 247
Destinations: 146

Aeroflotphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Aeroflot is the flag carrier and largest airline in Russia. It is also the oldest airline in Eastern Europe, dating back to early 1923. Originally, the airline was called DOBOROLET or The Russian Society for Voluntary Air Fleet. While Aeroflot was operated by the USSR it was the largest airline in the world, with a fleet of over five thousand domestically-made aircraft and expanded to operate a domestic and international flight network of over three thousand destinations throughout the Soviet Union and the globe. However, this wasn’t sustainable and Aeroflot had a lot of accidents. Following the dissolution of the USSR, Aeroflot shrunk significantly, but it remains as one of the largest airlines today.

Did You Know?

Since July 2013, Aeroflot has been the official carrier of Manchester United Football Club and is the first ever sponsorship Manchester United has signed with a Russian company.


3. Qantas

Date Founded: November 16, 1920
Headquarters:  Mascot, Sydney, Australia
Primary Hub(s): Brisbane Airport, Melbourne Airport, and Sydney Airport
Fleet Size: 130
Destinations: 85

Qantasphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Qantas is Australia’s largest airline and the third continuously operating airline in the world. This iconic Australian airline was founded by World War One veterans Paul McGinness and Hudson Fysh, who wanted to connect Australia to the rest of the world. Initially, Qantas transported passengers from western Queensland to other parts of Australia. Qantas established its first international flight path in 1935 by connecting to Singapore. Today, Qantas reaches over 85 destinations both domestically and internationally.

Did You Know?

Qantas is an acronym for the airline’s original name, “Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services.”


2. Avianca

Date Founded: December 5, 1919
Headquarters:  Bogotá, Colombia
Primary Hub(s): El Dorado International Airport and San Óscar Arnulfo Romero International Airport (Avianca El Salvador)
Fleet Size: 102
Destinations: 114

Aviancaphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Avianca celebrated its 100th anniversary on December 5, 2019. The airline traces it history to the founding of the Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transportes Aéreos or SCADTA in late 1919. SCADTA operated as an independent airline for the next few decades, transporting passengers and cargo to nearby countries and the U.S.

Then, in 1940, SCADTA merged with regional Colombian airline SACO (acronym of Servicio Aéreo Colombiano), forming the new Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S.A. or Avianca. After this, Avianca became the national airline of Colombia.

Did You Know?

Although Avianca is still technically in operation, in May 2020, Avianca filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and is one of several major airlines heavily affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic crisis.


1. KLM Royal Dutch Airlines

Date Founded: October 7, 1919
Headquarters:  Amstelveen, North Holland, Netherlands
Primary Hub(s): Amstelveen, North Holland, Netherlands
Fleet Size: 116
Destinations: 145

KLM Royal Dutch Airlinesphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

 

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines was founded on October 7, 1919 making it the oldest airline in continuous operation in the world. KLM (Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij) was founded by eight Dutch businessmen, including Frits Fentener van Vlissingen, as one of the world’s first commercial airline. A aviator lieutenant named Albert Plesman, who sponsored the First Aviation Exhibition Amsterdam (ELTA) earlier in 1919, was appointed as KLM’s first administrator and director. The first KLM flight took place on May 17, 1920. Since then, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines has grown to a fleet of 116 planes, servicing over 145 destinations.

Did You Know?

The last time that KLM Royal Dutch Airlines was involved with a major disaster was in 1977 when 583 people died when one of KLM’s planes attempted to take off without clearance, and collided with a taxiing Pan Am plane. This is known as the Tenerife disaster and it remains as the accident with the highest number of airliner passenger fatalities.

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10 Oldest Women Currently in Congress

In 1916, Jeannette Rankin made history when she became the first woman to hold federal office in the United States. Rankin was a suffragist and fought for women’s rights. Serving as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Rankin paved the way for every woman who has served in Congress since then.
All of the women on this list have had long careers as politicians and public servants. Many of them started out in education and went on to start political careers to make a difference in their local communities. These women range in age from their late 70s to late 80s and show women and girls everywhere that its never too late to go after what you want.
As of June 2020, this list is as accurate as possible and will be updated as needed.

10. Anna Eshoo (December 13, 1942 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 77 years, 6 months, 10 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  California’s 18th District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 1993

Anna Eshoophoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Anna Eshoo is the U.S. House Representative for California’s Silicon Valley area, a position she has held since 1993. Eshoo’s political career started in 1978 when she became the Chair of the San Mateo Democratic Party. She then went on to become a member of the Democratic National Committee. After this, Eshoo was chief of staff to Speaker pro tempore Leo McCarthy of the California State Assembly. Eshoo first made a bid of the House of Representatives in 1988, but ended up losing.

Did You Know?

Anna Eshoo – who is of Assyrian and Armenian descent –  is the only Assyrian American in Congress, and is also one of only two congresswomen of Armenian descent, with Jackie Speier being the other.


9. Frederica Wilson (November 5, 1942 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 77 years, 7 months, 18 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  Florida’s 24th District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 2011

Frederica Wilsonphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Frederica Wilson has been serving Florida in the U.S. House of Representatives since 2011. Before becoming a Congresswoman, Wilson was a member of Florida’s Senate and the state’s House of Representatives. Wilson was also a teacher, principal, and a member of the Miami-Dade County School Board. As a Congresswoman, Wilson has fought to improve the quality of life for her constituency by creating jobs with dignity, improving education, stopping home foreclosures, safeguarding Medicare and Social Security, and strengthening ties with Haiti and the Caribbean.

Did You Know?

While Frederica Wilson was working as an educator, she founded the 5000 Role Models program, which seeks to bring down dropout rates.


8. Lucille Roybal-Allard (June 12, 1941 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 79 years, 11 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  California’s 40th District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 1993

Lucille Roybal-Allardphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Lucille Roybal-Allard is one of the many Congresswomen on this list from California. Roybal-Allard has represented the 33rd, 34th, and now 40th district of the state and has been in office for over 26 years. As a Latina Congresswoman, Roybal-Allard has made many firsts, including being the first Latina to serve as one of the 12 “cardinals,” or chairs, of a House Appropriations Subcommittee, as well as the first Latina to serve on the House Appropriations Committee. Roybal-Allard is also the first woman to chair the Congressional Hispanic Caucus as well as the first woman to chair the California Democratic congressional delegation.

Did You Know?

In addition to making many firsts in Congress, Lucille Roybal-Alalrd founded the Women’s Working Group on Immigration Reform.


7. Donna Shalala (February 14, 1941 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 79 years, 4 months, 9 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  Florida’s 27th District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 2019

Donna Shalalaphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Donna Shalala is a newer member of the House of Representatives, having won in Florida’s 27th district during the 2018 midterm elections. However, Shalala is no stranger to public service as she served as the18th United States Secretary of Health and Human Services under President Bill Clinton from 1993 to 2001. Shalala is the longest-serving Secretary of Health and Human Services in U.S. history. From 2015 – 2017, Shalala served as the president of the Clinton Foundation.

Did You Know?

In the early 1960s, Donna Shalala began her career in public service as one of the United States’ first Peace Corps volunteers in Iran.


6. Nancy Pelosi (March 26, 1940 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 80 years, 2 months, 28 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  California’s 12th District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  June 2, 1987

Nancy Pelosiphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Nancy Pelosi made history in 2007 when she became the first woman to ever serve as Speaker of the House, one of the most powerful positions in the U.S. government. Pelosi was Speaker the first time from 2007 to 2011. When the Democrats won the majority in the House in the 2018 midterm elections, Pelosi was once again appointed Speaker at the start of the next year.

Before becoming Speaker of the House, Pelosi served as House minority leader from 2003 – 2007 and again from 2011 – 2019. Pelosi was the first woman to ever lead a party in Congress.

Did You Know?

During her first time as Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi was instrumental in passing many landmark bills, including the Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, and the 2010 Tax Relief Act.


5. Maxine Waters (August 15, 1938 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 81 years, 10 months, 8 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  California’s 43rd District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 1991

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Maxine Waters is another long-serving Democratic member of the House of Representatives from California. Waters is the most senior member of the twelve Black women currently serving in Congress. Beginning her political career in the 1970s, Waters has made a name for herself for being outspoken and critical of Republican presidents George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Donald Trump. Additionally, Waters has always advocated for women, children, people of color, and the poor.

Did You Know?

In 2019, Maxine Waters became the first woman and first African American Chair of the House Financial Services Committee.


4. Nita Lowey (July 5, 1937 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 82 years, 11 months, 18 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  New York’s 17th District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 1989

Nita Loweyphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Nita Lowey has been a member of the U.S. House of Representatives since 1989. This is Lowey’s last term in Congress as she announced in late 2019 that she would not be running for reelection in 2020. Over her three-decade long career, Lowey served in the Democratic Leadership in 2001 and 2002 as the first woman and the first New Yorker to chair the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee.

Did You Know?

In 2018, after the Democrats won the majority in the House of Representatives, Nita Lowey became the first woman to chair the powerful House Appropriations Committee.


3. Grace Napolitano (December 4, 1936 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 83 years, 6 months, 19 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  California’s 32nd District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 1999

Grace Napolitanophoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Grace Napolitano is another woman in her 80s who has been in Congress since the 1990s. Although Napolitano’s district has been redrawn a few times since she first assumed office in 1999, she has been able to win each of her reelection campaigns. Napolitano began her political career in 1986 when she became a member of the Norwalk City Council. Over the years, Napolitano has been a part of many committees including the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands; Subcommittee on Water and Power; Subcommittee on Highways and Transit; and many more.

Did You Know?

Grace Napolitano had previously worked for the Ford Motor Company and worked her way up, holding various positions in the company, and retired in 1992.


2. Eddie Bernice Johnson (December 3, 1935 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 84 years, 6 months, 20 days
Chamber:  House of Representatives
State:  Texas’s 30th District
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  January 3, 1993

Eddie Bernice Johnsonphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Eddie Bernice Johnson has been the Representative for Texas’s 30th district since 1993. Johnson is the second oldest woman in Congress, but the oldest in the House of Representatives. Before becoming a politician for the first time in the early 1970s, Johnson worked for 16 years as Chief Psychiatric Nurse at the Dallas Veterans Administration Hospital, being the first African American woman to hold the position. During her time in Congress so far, Johnson has authored or co-authored more than 177bills that were passed by the House and Senate and signed into law by the president.

Did You Know?

When Eddie Bernice Johnson first ran for a seat in the Texas House in 1972, she was the underdog, but she ended up winning in a landslide and became the first Black woman ever elected to public office from Dallas.


1. Dianne Feinstein (June 22, 1933 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 87 years, 1 day
Chamber:  Senate
State:  California
Political Party:  Democratic
Assumed Office:  November 4, 1992

Dianne Feinsteinphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Dianne Feinstein very recently celebrated her 87th birthday, making her the oldest women currently in Congress. Feinstein has been the a California Senator since 1992 and has worked from the government since the 1960s. Before being elected to the Senate, Feinstein was Mayor of San Francisco from 1978 – 1988. She was the first woman to ever hold that position. During the 1992 special election, Feinstein was on the same ballot as Barbara Boxer. Both women became California’s first female senators.

Did You Know?

Since 2017, Dianne Feinstein has been the longest-tenured female U.S. Senator currently serving in the Senate. Feinstein’s term isn’t set to expire until 2025 and should she continue in office until at least November 2022, she will become the longest-serving female Senator in history.

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10 Oldest Cereals Ever Created

Humans have been eating grains for as long as anyone can remember, but the first true cereals, didn’t come about until the 19th century. Before the first cold cereal was invented, people did eat hot cereals or porridges. However, breakfast tended to be a heavy affair and the first cold cereals were created as healthier alternatives. These early cereals were made from wheat and were tough and not that great. Eventually, cereal recipes got better and they have evolved into what we see all across grocery shelves today. While a few of the cereals on this list are long gone, several are still actually around today and nearly as popular.

10. Force

Year Created: 1901
Creator:  Force Food Company
Place of Origin: Buffalo, New York, USA
Still Available: No

Forcephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Force was originally created in 1901 by the Force Food Company, which was owned by Edward Ellsworth. It was one of the earliest cereals advertised with a popular mascot, a cartoon man named Sunny Jim. In addition to the popular character, Force was the only well-liked wheat based cereal besides Shredded Wheat.

Eventually, Force became a staple in Britain as it lost favor in the United States. Sunny Jim and his jingles were slightly modified for the British audience and they took to him immediately. Force changed ownership several times over the years. The cereal was last manufactured by Nestlé only in the UK until 2013.

Did You Know?

To advertise Force, Minnie Maud Hanff, a freelance jingle writer, invented the character Jimmy Dumps, a morose character who on eating the cereal was transformed into Sunny Jim.


9. Kellogg’s Corn Flakes

Year Created: c.1898 (some sources say as early as 1894)
Creator:  William Kellogg and John Harvey Kellogg
Place of Origin: Battle Creek, Michigan, USA
Still Available: Yes

Kellogg's Corn Flakesphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Kellogg’s Corn Flakes might not be the oldest cereal ever, but it is definitely one of the most iconic and often comes to mind when people think of breakfast. The Kellogg brothers had already been in the cereal business for over a decade, selling granola. However, they kept experimenting with different techniques and eventually produced corn flakes. The Kelloggs’ new cereal was lighter, crispier, and tastier than the most of the tough early cereals of the 19th century. Of course, as we all know, Kellogg’s Corn Flakes were a hit and are still very popular today.

Did You Know?

After many disagreements, William Kellogg bought the recipe for Corn Flakes from his brother and left to form “Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company,” which is now the Kellogg Company.


8. Vitos

Year Created: 1897
Creator:  Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills Co.
Place of Origin: Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Still Available: No

Vitosphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

As the competition in the cereal industry was heating up, Pillsbury decided to enter the fray with their own cereal, Vitos. Like the other early cereals of the time, Vitos were made from wheat. Pillsbury tried to make Vitos stand out from the competition by letting consumers know it could be eaten in many different ways. The company even ran an amateur recipe competition using Vitos in 1900.

Did You Know?

According to Vitos packaging, the cereal was sterilized, which was unique to Vitos as no other cereals were advertised as sterilized.


7. Grape-Nuts

Year Created: 1897
Creator:  C. W. Post
Place of Origin: Battle Creek, Michigan, USA
Still Available: Yes

Grape-Nutsphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Grape-Nuts made their debut all the way back in 1897 after C. W. Post visited John Harvey Kellogg’s Battle Creek Sanitarium and became interested in all of Kellogg’s recipes. Post decided to open up his own company in Battle Creek and produced his own cereal, Grape-Nuts.

Like all early cereals, Grape-Nuts was advertised as a health food. Grape-Nuts were made from a dough that was baked into a rigid sheet. The dough was then passed through a coffee grinder to produce  “nut” sized kernels.

Did You Know?

Grape-Nuts are such a hearty shelf-stable food that during World War II, the cereal was part of the rations sent to Allied forces stationed in Panama and other tropical parts of the world.


6. Granose Flakes

Year Created: 1895
Creator:  John Harvey Kellogg and William Kellogg
Place of Origin: John Harvey Kellogg and William Kellogg
Still Available: No

Granose Flakesphoto source: scalar.usc.edu

Before coming up with Corn Flakes, John Harvey Kellogg and his brother William Kellogg did a lot of experimenting. They were trying to come up with the perfect cereal and something that could compete with Shredded Wheat, which had become really popular at the time.

According to Kellogg Company lore, Granose Flakes were the result of an accident. Will Kellogg left a batch of wheat berries to soak overnight and after discovering his mistake, he decided to run them through the machine rollers anyway. This resulted in a thin sheet of dough that produced large flakes. Will Kellogg baked these flakes and thought they were delicious. The Kelloggs dubbed this new cereal Granose Flakes.

Did You Know?

The name “Granose Flakes” is a combination of grain and the scientific suffix “ose,”or metabolism.


5. Shredded Wheat

Year Created: 1890
Creator:  Henry Perky
Place of Origin: Denver, Colorado, USA
Still Available: Yes

Shredded Wheatphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Shredded Wheat is another popular old-fashioned cereal that dates back to the late 19th century. The cereal was invented by Henry Perky in 1890. Perky went on to start the Cereal Machine Company and he initially sold his new shredded wheat cereal to vegetarian restaurants in 1892. In 1893, Shredded Wheat made its national debut at Chicago’s World Columbian Exposition and the cereal soon exploded in popularity.

Did You Know?

While a few different brands produce their own version of Shredded Wheat, the original recipe is now manufactured by Post Consumer Brands, who acquired the cereal from Nabisco in 1993 – Nabisco had been making Shredded Wheat since 1928.


4. Pettijohn’s Breakfast Food

Year Created: 1889
Creator:  The American Cereal Co.
Place of Origin: Chicago, Illinois, USA
Still Available: No

photo source: Flickr via Boston Public Library

Pettijohn’s Breakfast Food is a cereal that’s been gone for ages, but was one of the earliest mass produced wheat cereals. It was initially produced by The American Cereal Co. of Chicago, Illinois. Then in 1893, Pettijohn’s Breakfast Food was sold to The Quaker Oats Company. Pettijohn’s was made “from the best pacific white wheat” and was touted as a health food that had all the benefits of whole wheat without the bran.

Did You Know?

In the 1920s, Quaker Oats rebranded/repackaged Pettijohn’s Breakfast Food as Pettijohn’s Whole Wheat Cereal.


3. Granola

Year Created: c.1881 (sources differ and say as early as 1877)
Creator:  John Harvey Kellogg
Place of Origin: Battle Creek, Michigan, USA
Still Available: Yes from many different brands

Granolaphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

While granola is now a widely available cereal from many different brands, it actually started out as a specific brand created by John Harvey Kellogg sometime around 1881. Kellogg was inspired by James Caleb Jackson’s Granula and actually initially called his own cereal Granula. Even though Kellogg’s Granula was very different from Jackson’s product, Jackson filed copyright infringement against Kellogg, who then changed his cereal’s name to Granola.

Kellogg’s granola was made from oats instead of the Graham flour that Jackson used. Kellogg also used a different rolling process to make the oats more chewable than Jackson’s cereal, which had to be soaked over night.

Did You Know?

John Harvey Kellogg’s Granola was so popular that within a decade, he was selling two tons of the cereal annually.


2. Wheatena

Year Created: c.1879
Creator:  George H. Hoyt
Place of Origin: New York City, New York, USA
Still Available: Yes

Wheatenaphoto source: Flickr via Internet Archive Book Images


Wheatena might not be a widely recognized cereal today, but it is one of the oldest continuously manufactured cereals dating back to the 19th century. The cereal was created by George H. Hoyt and it was one of the first cereals to be packaged in a box. At the time, most cereals were kept in large barrels at the grocery store and scooped out by the pound for customers. Hoyt felt that his sanitary packaging would appeal to customers.

Wheatena hasn’t changed much over the years and the cereal is produced by Homestat Farm, which is owned by Camden Holdings.

Did You Know?

In the 1930s, Wheatena often sponsored radio shows, including 87 episodes of the Popeye the Sailor radio program on NBC’s Red Network.


1. Granula

Year Created: 1863
Creator:  Dr. James Caleb Jackson
Place of Origin: Dansville, New York, USA
Still Available: No

Granulaphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

First invented in 1863, Granula is the oldest cereal ever created in the world. While cereal grains and hot cereals have been eaten by people for years, Granula was the first breakfast cereal, as we know it today. Granula was created by Dr. James Caleb Jackson, who ran a health spa in upstate New York. Dr. Jackson began experimenting with cold cereals as cure for various ailments.

Jackson came up with Granula, which was made from Graham flour dough that was rolled into sheets and baked. These dried sheets were then broken into pieces, baked again, and broken down again into smaller pieces. As you can imagine, Granula was very tough and it didn’t take off with the public, but Jackson’s creation ended up inspiring one of biggest cereal titans, John Harvey Kellog.

Did You Know?

Granula was such a hard cereal that it had to be soaked overnight before it could be eaten and it was nicknamed “wheat rocks.”

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9 Oldest Members of Current U.S. Supreme Court

Members of the Supreme Court of the United States tend to be quite old even though there is no minimum age requirement to be nominated to the Court. This is because justices need to have several decades of experience working the American legal system. The current Supreme Court is no different than those of the past and its current members range in age from 52 all the way up to 87!
As of June 2020, this list is as accurate as possible and will be updated as needed.

9. Neil Gorsuch (August 29, 1967 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 52 years, 9 months, 19 days
Appointed By:  President Donald Trump
Start of Service: April 10, 2017
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 3 years, 2 months, 7 days

Neil Gorsuchphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Neil Gorsuch is the youngest member of the current Supreme Court of the United States at 52. Gorsuch was nominated by President Donald Trump to succeed Justice Antonin Scalia following his death in 2016. Gorsuch earned a Bachelor of Arts from Columbia University, a Juris Doctor from Harvard University, and after practicing law for 15 years received a Doctor of Philosophy in Law from the University of Oxford.

After working in private practice law for several years, Gorsuch was Principal Deputy Associate Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice and later appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit.

Did You Know?

Neil Gorsuch is the first Supreme Court Justice to serve alongside another Justice for whom he once had clerked, serving with Justice Anthony Kennedy before he retired in 2018.


8. Brett Kavanaugh (February 12, 1965 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 55 years, 4 months, 5 days
Appointed By:  President Donald Trump
Start of Service: October 6, 2018
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 1 year, 8 months, 11 days

Brett Kavanaughphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Brett Kavanaugh is the newest, but not youngest, member of the current Supreme Court of the United States. Kavanaugh has only served for less than two years and so far he is known for his hotly contested nomination hearing. As soon as Kavanaugh’s name was put on President Trump’s short list of replacements for Justice Anthony Kennedy, Palo Alto University Professor of Psychology Christine Blasey Ford contacted a Washington Post tip line with accusations that Kavanaugh had sexually assaulted her in the early 1980s while the two were in high school. Two other women also came forward with allegations.

While the Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing over Ford’s allegations, Kavanaugh was not found guilty and was confirmed to the Supreme Court on October 6, 2018. Since then, Kavanaugh has become known for being a staunchly conservative judge.

Did You Know?

Before becoming a Supreme Court Justice, Brett Kavanaugh served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and as a staff lawyer for various offices of the federal government.


7. Elena Kagan (April 28, 1960 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 60 years, 1 months, 20 days
Appointed By:  President Barack Obama
Start of Service: August 7, 2010
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 9 years, 10 months, 10 days

Elena Kaganphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Elena Kagan is the fourth woman to ever serve as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and President Barack Obama’s second Supreme Court nominee. Kagan was appointed in 2010 and will be celebrating a decade in office in early August of this year. Although Kaga is considered part of the Supreme Court’s liberal wing, she tends to be the more moderate member of that group.

Kagan was born and raised in New York City and she graduated from Princeton University, the University of Oxford, and Harvard Law School. She clerked for a federal Court of Appeals judge and for Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall after finishing school. Kagan has also worked as a professor at Harvard Law School and later became the first woman to be appointed the school’s dean.

Did You Know?

In 2009, Elena Kagan became the first female Solicitor General of the United States.


6. John Roberts (January 27, 1955 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 65 years, 4 months, 21 days
Appointed By:  President George W. Bush
Start of Service: September 29, 2005
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 14 years, 8 months, 19 days

John Robertsphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

John Roberts is the current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a position he has held since he was appointed in 2005. Although Roberts has been described as having a conservative judicial philosophy in his jurisprudence, he has been willing to work with the liberal wing of the Court. Since the retirement of Anthony Kennedy in 2018 Roberts has become a key swing vote on the Court.

Roberts studied history at Harvard University then went to Harvard Law School. He served as a law clerk for Circuit Judge Henry Friendly and then-associate justice William Rehnquist before taking a position in the attorney general’s office during the Reagan Administration. Roberts then went on to practice private law and argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court.

Did You Know?

Chief Justice John Roberts has authored the majority opinion in several landmark cases, including Shelby County v. Holder, National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, King v. Burwell, and Department of Commerce v. New York.


5. Sonia Sotomayor (June 25, 1954 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 65 years, 11 months, 23 days
Appointed By:  President Barack Obama
Start of Service: August 8, 2009
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 10 years, 10 months, 9 days

Sonia Sotomayorphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor became the third woman ever appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States. Sotomayor is one of several justices in their 60s, which is relatively young for this current Court. Appointed by President Barack Obama in 2009, Sotomayor has served on the Supreme Court for nearly 11 years. Sotomayor is the first ever Hispanic and Latina justice to serve on the Court.

Sotomayor graduated from Princeton University and also attended Yale Law School. After school, Sotomayor worked as an assistant district attorney in New York for four-and-a-half years before entering private practice. In the 1990s, Sotomayor served on the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, followed by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Sotomayor has also taught the New York University School of Law and Columbia Law School.

Did You Know?

In 2013, Sonia Sotomayor chronicled her life leading up to becoming a Supreme Court justice in My Beloved World, which debuted atop the New York Times Best Seller List.


4. Samuel Alito (April 1, 1950 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 70 years, 2 months, 16 days
Appointed By:  President George W. Bush
Start of Service: January 31, 2006
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 14 years, 4 months, 17 days

Samuel Alitophoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Samuel Alito turned 70 just a few months ago and is currently the fourth oldest Supreme Court justice. Alito was nominated by President George W. Bush and appointed in early 2006. Just like Clarence Thomas, Alito is considered one of the most conservative justices. In fact, Alito is such a hard-right conservative that during his nomination hearings, the ACLU formally opposed Alito’s nomination. The ACLU has only done this three other times, opposing the nominations of William Rehnquist, Robert Bork, and Brett Kavanaugh.

Before being appointed to the Supreme Court, Alito had a long career as an attorney. Alito worked for the Department of Justice and as a U.S. attorney for New Jersey before being selected to serve as a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals.

Did You Know?

Samuel Alito has delivered the majority opinion in landmark cases including McDonald v. Chicago, Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, Murphy v. NCAA, and Janus v. AFSCME.


3. Clarence Thomas (June 23, 1948 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 71 years, 11 months, 25 days
Appointed By:  President George H. W. Bush
Start of Service: October 23, 1991
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 28 years, 7 months, 25 days

Clarence Thomasphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Justice Clarence Thomas is a decade and a half younger than Ruth Bader Ginsburg and is the third oldest Supreme Court Justice. First appointed in 1991, Thomas is currently the longest-serving justice among this group of justices. Serving as the director successor to Thurgood Marshall, Thomas is the second African American to ever be appointed to the Supreme Court.

Thomas is known for being the most conservative member of the current Court. Since becoming a justice, Thomas has taken a textualist approach, seeking to uphold the original meaning of the United States Constitution and statutes.

Did You Know?

In 2007, Clarence Thomas’s memoir, My Grandfather’s Son, became a bestseller and Thomas was given a $1.5 million advance to write the book.


2. Stephen Breyer (August 15, 1938 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 81 years, 10 months, 2 days
Appointed By:  President Bill Clinton
Start of Service: August 3, 1994
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 25 years, 10 months, 14 days

Stephen Breyerphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The second oldest current Supreme Court justice is Stephen Breyer, who is six years younger than Ruth Bader Ginsburg, but also in his 80s. Also like Ginsburg, Breyer was appointed by President Bill Clinton back in the 90s and has served for over 25 years. Before joining the Supreme Court, Breyer was a judge on the First Circuit Court of Appeals. Breyer has also worked as a Harvard Law School professor, assistant to the United States Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust, and assistant special prosecutor on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973.

In more recent years, Breyer has written several books regarding the American justice system. His first book came out in 2005 and was titled Active Liberty. This was followed by Making Our Democracy Work: A Judge’s View in 2010 and The Court and the World: American Law and the New Global Realities in 2015.

Did You Know?

While Stephen Breyer was a law professor and lecturer at Harvard Law School, he specialized in administrative law, writing a number of influential textbooks that are still used today.


1. Ruth Bader Ginsburg (March 15, 1933 – Present)

Current Age (as of June 2020): 87 years, 3 months, 2 days
Appointed By:  President Bill Clinton
Start of Service: August 10, 1993
Length of Service (as of June 2020): 26 years, 10 months, 7 days

Ruth Bader Ginsburgphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Not only is Ruth Bader Ginsburg the oldest member of the current Supreme Court of the United States at the age of 87, she is one of the oldest justices ever! Additionally, Ginsburg is the oldest female justice to ever serve. She was also the second woman ever to be appointed to the Supreme Court. While she has since been joined by Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan, Ginsburg was the only female justice for a few years following Sandra Day O’Connor’s retirement in 2004. During this time, Ginsburg’s dissents became stronger and she has since become a cultural icon among liberals.

Over the years, Ginsburg was diagnosed with cancer four different times. She has survived each battle and still refuses to step down from the Supreme Court. Despite concerns over her age, Ginsburg says that she is still sharp/healthy enough to perform her duties. Also, Ginsburg’s said that she wants to follow in Justice John Paul Steven’s footsteps and retire at 90.

Did You Know?

In 1972, Ruth Bader Ginsburg received tenure at Columbia Law School, becoming the school’s first tenured female professor.

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10 Oldest Soap Operas in the World

With so many highly rated prestige shows on television these days, soap operas seem like a relic from the long past. However, soap operas are still some of the most popular daytime TV shows in the world and every country with a television industry has their own soap opera division. Not only are soap operas watched by millions, but they are some of the longest-running shows on TV (and radio). All of the soap operas on this list have been airing for several decades and show no signs of slowing down.
As of June 2020, this list is as accurate as possible and will be updated as needed.

10. The Bold and the Beautiful

First Premiered: March 23, 1987
Country of Origin:  USA
Home Network or Station: CBS
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): 33
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): over 8,000

The Bold and the Beautifulphoto source: Wikipedia

The Bold and the Beautiful is the youngest of the last few classic American soap operas still on air. The show premiered its first episode in 1987 and is in its 33rd season. The Bold and the Beautiful was created William J. Bell and Lee Phillip Bell  as a sister show for CBS’s The Young and the Restless. Over the years several characters from both shows have crossed over to the other. Since the beginning, The Bold and the Beautiful has mainly focused on the Forrester family and their fashion house business, Forrester Creations.

Did You Know?

The Bold and the Beautiful is aired in over 100 countries and watched by more than 35 million people per episode.


9. Neighbours

First Premiered: March 18, 1985
Country of Origin:  Australia
Home Network or Station: 10 Peach (originally Seven Network)
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): N/A
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): 8,384

Neighboursphoto source: Sky News

Neighbours is the only non-British or American soap opera on this list and is not only the oldest soap opera in Australia, it is also the longest-running drama series in Australian television. The show first aired in March 1985 and centers on the lives of the residents of the fictional town of Erinsborough. The main focus of Neighbours is on the characters living on Ramsay Street, and its neighbouring area, the Lassiters complex, which includes a bar, hotel, café, police station, lawyers’ office and park.

Did You Know?

Many now famous Australian actors got their start on Neighbours, including Kylie Minogue, Delta Goodrem, Natalie Imbruglia, Guy Pearce, and Margot Robbie.


8. EastEnders

First Premiered: February 19, 1985
Country of Origin:  United Kingdom
Home Network or Station: BBC
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): N/A
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): 6,122

EastEndersphoto source: Wikipedia

While many of the oldest soap operas on this list are from the United Kingdom, EastEnders is probably the most popular of the bunch. EastEnders isn’t quite as old as some of the others, premiering back in 1985, but it has had a significant impact on British popular culture since it first came on TV. The show is often referenced in other British television programs, movies, and music.

Over the years, EastEnders has been praised and criticized for many of its storylines, which deal with hard subjects such as violence, rape, and child abuse. Despite the complaints, EastEnders consistently receives between 5 and 7 million viewers per episode.

Did You Know?

The 1986 Christmas Day episode of the EastEnders was viewed by 30 million people and remains the highest viewed episode of any soap in UK television history.


7. Pobol y Cwm

First Premiered: October 16, 1974
Country of Origin:  United Kingdom, specifically Wales
Home Network or Station: S4C (originally BBC)
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): N/A
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): over 8,000

Pobol y Cwmphoto source: Wikipedia

Pobol y Cwm is a Welsh soap opera and is the oldest one produced by the BBC. The show, which is entirely in Welsh, debuted on October 16, 1974, airing over 8,000 episodes. Pobol y Cwm has been produced by S4C since 1982 and is the channel’s most watched program besides Rugby specials. Four episodes of Pobol y Cwm are produced each week with an hour long episode airing every Wednesday.

Did You Know?

Although Pobol y Cwm has been on for nearly five decades, the show has not had as rigorous a schedule as the other soap operas on this list and only recently celebrated hitting 8,000 episodes in late September 2019.


6. The Young and the Restless

First Premiered: March 26, 1973
Country of Origin:  USA
Home Network or Station: CBS
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): 47
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): over 11,000

The Young and the Restlessphoto source: Wikipedia

The Young and the Restless was created in 1973 by William J. Bell and Lee Phillip Bell for CBS. It is the third oldest American soap opera, behind General Hospital and Days of Our Lives. The Young and the Restless originally focused on the rich Brooks family and the working-class Foster family. After most of the cast left, new families were added and stories changed. However, one story line that has been around since the beginning is the feud between characters Jill Abbott and Katherine Chancellor.

Did You Know?

As of December 12, 2013, according to Nielsen ratings, The Young and the Restless was the leading daytime drama for an unprecedented 1,300 weeks, or 25 years.


5. Emmerdale

First Premiered: October 16, 1972
Country of Origin:  United Kingdom
Home Network or Station: ITV
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): N/A
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): 8,802

Emmerdalephoto source: Wikipedia

Emmerdale is another long running British soap opera from ITV. The show first premiered on October 16, 1972 and has aired more than 8,802 episodes. Emmerdale, originally called Emmerdale Farm, was actually set in a fictional town called Beckindale until 1994, when the town’s name was changed to Emmerdale.

The original premise of Emmerdale was inspired by the oldest soap opera, The Archers, which focused on a family living on a farm and sometimes the nearby villagers. Since then, Emmerdale has shifted focus to the village and the characters living there, but still focuses on the same families it has since the beginning.

Did You Know?

Not only is Emmerdale popular in the UK, it is the most watched non-news daytime TV show in Sweden, having first aired there not long after it premiered in the UK.


4. Days of Our Lives

First Premiered: November 8, 1965
Country of Origin:  USA
Home Network or Station: NBC
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): 54
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): 13,872

Days of Our Livesphoto source: Wikipedia

Days of Our Lives, affectionately called Days but its fans, is the second oldest American soap opera. The show has been running since 1965, airing over 13,872 episodes across 54 seasons. Days of Our Lives celebrated its 50th anniversary in November 2015.

The series covers stories featuring its two main families, the Hortons and the Bradys, in a town called Salem. Over the years, several other families have been added to the story, but the Hortons and the Bradys continue to be the show’s main focus.

Did You Know?

Actress Susan Seaforth Hayes, who plays Julie Olson Williams, is the only actor to appear on Days of Our Lives in all seven decades it has been on the air.


3. General Hospital

First Premiered: April 1, 1963
Country of Origin:  USA
Home Network or Station: ABC
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): 57
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): Over 14,000

General Hospitalphoto source: Wikipedia

While General Hospital might not be the oldest ever soap opera, it is the longest-running American soap opera. The show started in 1963 and is still going strong. It is one of the few remaining classic American soap operas still on television. Over the years, General Hospital has aired over 57 seasons and more than 14,000 episodes!

The popularity of General Hospital has led to many spinoffs (none lasting nearly as long as classic General Hospital), including: The Young Marrieds, a UK primetime series with the same name, Port Charles, and General Hospital: Night Shift.

Did You Know?

General Hospital holds the record for most Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Drama Series, with 13 wins.


2. Coronation Street

First Premiered: December 9, 1960
Country of Origin:  United Kingdom
Home Network or Station: ITV
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): N/A
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): 10,074

Coronation Streetphoto source: Wikipedia

The UK’s Coronation Street holds the official Guinness World Record for being the longest running/oldest television soap opera in history. Coronation Street first premiered in 1960 and has since aired over 10,000 episodes. The show is set in the fictional town of Weatherfield, which is based on the real inner-city of Salford, England.

Coronation Street depicts a down-to-earth, working-class community, combined with light-hearted humor and strong characters. The show’s relatability has made Coronation Street an enduring part of British culture and the show averages around seven million viewers per episode.

Did You Know?

Coronation Street has seen several characters and actors come and go over the years, but actor William Roache, who plays grandpa Ken Barlow, has been on the show since the very first episode.


1. The Archers

First Premiered: January 1, 1951
Country of Origin:  United Kingdom
Home Network or Station: BBC Radio 4
No. of Seasons (as of June 2020): N/A
No. of Episodes (as of June 2020): 19,221

The Archersphoto source: Newsweek

The Archers first aired on British radios on January 1, 1951, making it the oldest soap opera in the world. The show is the only radio program on this list and has aired over 19,000 episodes during the last 69 years. Although The Archers made its official debut in 1951, five pilot episodes were released in 1950.

Set in the fictional English village of Ambridge, The Archers was originally billed as an everyday story about country folk. Today, The Archers is a contemporary drama in a rural setting.

Did You Know?

Although The Archers has been on for several decades, the show is still incredibly popular with over 5 million listeners still tuning in today.

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10 Oldest Film Festivals in the World

Film festivals date back to the early 20th century and are a way to showcase the works filmmakers, both masters and newcomers, from around the world. The films shown at these festivals often reflect current socio-political events as well as current popular culture. While there are countless film festivals of all sizes today, the ones on this list are the oldest and have been running almost continuously each year for several decades.

10. International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg

Year Founded: 1952
Held Annually:  Yes, in November
Location: Mannheim and Heidelberg, Germany
Awards: Master of Cinema; New Master of Cinema

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg (IFFMH) is the second oldest film festival in Germany, behind Berlinale. The festival was first established in 1952 and since 1994, the festival has been jointly held by the cities of Mannheim and Heidelberg in Baden-Württemberg. IFFMH is known for screening arthouse films of independent newcomer directors who are internationally widely-unknown, focussing on arthouse and auteur films. Several awards are given out including Master of Cinema, Grand Newcomer Award Mannheim-Heidelberg, and Special Jury Award of Mannheim-Heidelberg.

Did You Know?

Since the International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg focuses on new filmmakers, any films screened at Cannes, Locarno, Venice and any other German festivals are excluded from the International Competition.


9. Melbourne International Film Festival

Year Founded: 1952
Held Annually:  Yes, in July or August
Location: Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Awards: Grand Prix

Melbourne International Film Festivalphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Melbourne International Film Festival is the oldest festival of its kind in Australia, dating back to 1952. Unlike some of the other film festivals on this list, the Melbourne International Film Festival doesn’t have set venue and takes place in various theatres around Melbourne’s city center. The festival is also Australia’s largest showcase of new Australian cinema – the festival also screens international films.

Did You Know?

Since 2013, Melbourne International Film Festival’s awards have been accredited by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the Australian Film Institute, and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.


8. Berlin International Film Festival

Year Founded: June 6, 1951
Held Annually:  Yes, in February
Location: Berlin, Germany
Awards: Golden Bear; Silver Bears

Berlin International Film Festivalphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Berlin International Film Festival, typically called Berlinale, was founded in West Germany in 1951 during the height of the Cold War. Alfred Hitchcock’s Rebecca opened the first festival at the Titiana-Palast in Steglitz on June 6, 1951. Today, the Berlin International Film Festival has grown into one of the most prestigious and largest film festivals in the world. Up to 400 films are shown in several sections across cinematic genres, but only about 20 compete for the festival’s top awards, called the Golden Bear and several Silver Bears.

Did You Know?

With around 300,000 tickets sold and 500,000 admissions each year, the Berlin International Film Festival has the largest public attendance of any of the world’s annual film festivals.


7. Yorkton Film Festival

Year Founded: October 11, 1950
Held Annually:  Yes, in May
Location: Yorkton, Saskatchewan, Canada
Awards: Golden Sheaf Awards

Yorkton Film Festivalphoto source: Yorkton This Week

The Yorkton Film Festival traces its history back to 1947 when the Yorkton Film Council was formed. However, the first Yorkton Film Festival did not take actually take place until October 11, 1950. Yorkton is the oldest film festival in the Americas. Over the years, the festival has had many name changes, and has been known as the Yorkton Film Festival since 2009. Unlike the other festivals on this list, which welcome international entries, the Yorkton Film Festival focuses on Canadian productions, or international productions directed by Canadians, and focuses on films that are under 60 minutes in length.

Did You Know?

In 2020, the Yorkton Film Festival announced that it would include a new category for Mental Health, sponsored by the Mental Health Drop-in Centre for three years. The festival will be the first in Canada to include an award for this category.


6. Edinburgh International Film Festival

Year Founded: June 1, 1947
Held Annually:  Yes, in June
Location: Edinburgh, Scotland
Awards: The Michael Powell Award

Edinburgh International Film Festivalphoto source: Flickr via this is Edinburgh

Although there are other film festivals on this list that are older, the Edinburgh International Film Festival bills itself as the oldest continually running film festival in the world because it has occurred every year without a break since 1947. All of the other earlier film festivals on this list were put on pause at some time during history due to World War II and other social/political turmoil of the host countries.

The first Edinburgh International Film Festival was called the International Festival of Documentary Films, and was opened by John Grierson, founder of the British documentary movement. The film festival shows a range of feature-length films and documentaries as well as short films, animations and music videos. The highest award given out Edinburgh International Film Festival is the Michael Powell Award.

Did You Know?

In 1972, the Edinburgh International Film Festival included the Women’s Film Festival, exclusively for female directors.


5. Karlovy Vary International Film Festival

Year Founded: 1946
Held Annually:  Yes, in July
Location: Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic
Awards: Crystal Globe

Karlovy Vary International Film Festivalphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is the oldest film festival in Central Europe and the largest festival of this sort in the Czech Republic. Originally, the festival was held in Mariánské Lázně, but was moved to Karlovy Vary in 1947. During that first year in Karlovy Vary, the festival became competitive and the very first Crystal Globe was awarded. Over the next few years, the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival grew bigger and in 1956, the International Federation of Film Producers Associations (FIAPF) officially designated Karlovy Vary a category A festival.

Did You Know?

Due to the long-lasting power of the Soviet Union and its predecessors, from 1959 to 1993, the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival was only held every other year so that the Moscow Film Festival could be held on Karlovy Vary’s off years. This was because there could only be one “A” festival for all socialist countries.


4. Cannes Film Festival

Year Founded: September 20, 1946
Held Annually:  Yes, usually in May
Location: Cannes, France
Awards: Palme d’Or; Grand Prix

Cannes Film Festivalphoto source: Wikimedia Commons


The Cannes Film Festival is the second oldest of the “Big Five” film festivals – Venice Film Festival, Berlin International Film Festival, Toronto Film Festival, and Sundance Film Festival. After the Venice Film Festival had become a propaganda machine for Hitler and Mussolini, the French tried to make their own film festival for the first time in 1939.

Since this was the beginning of World War II only a few countries were able to submit films and Germany and Italy turned down France’s invitation, which was only extended as a courtesy. Although this first go at a Cannes Film Festival was successful, the French were not able to try again until after the War ended. The first true Cannes Film Festival took place on September 20, 1946.

Did You Know?

In recent years, Cannes Film Festival has been surrounded by a number of gender and sexual controversies, including “Heelgate” in 2015, in which numerous female attendees of a red carpet premiere were stopped from entering for wearing flat soled shoes instead of high heels.


3. Locarno Film Festival

Year Founded: August 23, 1946
Held Annually:  Yes, typically in August
Location: Locarno, Switzerland
Awards: Golden Leopard; Leopard of Honour; Prix du Public

Locarno Film Festivalphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Locarno Film Festival was one of three big film festival launched around the same time in 1946 following World War II. The first festival was quickly put together in less than three months with a line-up of fifteen movies, mainly American and Italian. Since it first began, the Locarno Film Festival has become known for being a prestigious platform for art house films. Locarno screens films in various competitive and non-competitive sections, including feature-length narrative and documentary, short, avant-garde, and retrospective programs.

Did You Know?

The first film ever shown at the Locarno Film Festival was Giacomo Gentilomo’s O sole mio.


2. Moscow International Film Festival

Year Founded: 1935
Held Annually:  Yes, in July
Location: Moscow, Russia
Awards: Golden George (Previously: Golden St. George; Golden Prize; and Grand Prix)

Moscow International Film Festivalphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Moscow International Film Festival dates back to 1935, but was not held regularly until 1959. For several decades it was held every other year. Then in 1999, the Moscow International Film Festival finally became an annual event. Over the years, the films shown at the Moscow International Film Festival have reflected Russia’s socio-political changes. The Moscow International Film Festival isn’t as big as some of the other old festivals on this list, but in recent years, it has attracted more high profile guests and filmmakers.

Did You Know?

Over the years the Moscow International Film Festival’s Stanislavsky Award—“I Believe. Konstantin Stanislavsky” for acting achievements has been awarded to several prominent actors including Jack Nicholson, Meryl Streep, Harvey Keitel, Gérard Depardieu, and Helen Mirren.


1. Venice Film Festival

Year Founded: August 6, 1932
Held Annually:  Yes, in late August or early September
Location: Venice, Italy
Awards: Golden Lion; Silver Lion; Grand Jury Prize; Volpi Cup; Special Jury Prize; Golden Osella

Venice Film Festivalphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Venice Film Festival was founded on August 6, 1932, making it the oldest film festival in the world. It was started as part of the 18th Venice Biennale, which is one of the world’s oldest exhibitions of art, founded by the Venice City Council on  April 19, 1893. Since the Venice Film Festival is so old, it has not been held continuously since 1932 because of World War II. However, Venice Film Festival has been held almost every year in late August or early September since 1946 – the festival was put on pause again a few times in the 1970s because of Italy’s social and political unrest spanning several decades.

Did You Know?

In 2018 Roma by Alfonso Cuarón won the Venice Film Festival’s Golden Lion (the highest award) and became the first ever movie produced by Netflix to be awarded in a major film festival.

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10 Oldest Japanese Ninja Warrior (SASUKE) Contestants

Japanese Ninja Warrior, which is called SASUKE in Japan became a culturally phenomenon not only in Japan, but around the world. The show first debuted in 1997 and has spawned several spin-offs as well as international versions in the United States, the UK, Indonesia, Germany, and Australia. Hundreds of people have competed over the years, and many contestants have made numerous appearances. Several of these contestants are in their 40s or beyond. While many of the competitors on this list are retired from Japanese Ninja Warrior, a few are still going strong.

10. Hidenori Nagasawa (November 17, 1965 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 45 years, 9 months, 5 days – SASUKE 27 (August 22, 2011)
Hometown:  Tokyo, Japan
Job: Mechanic
First Appearance: SASUKE 10 (September 25, 2002)
Total Number of Competitions: 10

photo source: Sasukepedia

Although Hidenori Nagasawa hasn’t competed on Japanese Ninja Warrior in nearly a decade, while he was on the show he was known for his dedication to the competition. Nagasawa trained really hard, but often failed to clear the First Stage. Additionally, his segments were cut from broadcasts a few times. Nagasawa only made it to the Second Stage once in his 10 appearances, but failed to advance.

Did You Know?

To train for Japanese Ninja Warrior, Hidenori Nagasawa built replicas of the game’s obstacles on his rooftop.


9. Naoki Iketani (December 1, 1973 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 45 years, 11 months, 23 days – SASUKE 37 (November 24, 2019)
Hometown:  Yodogawa, Osaka, Japan
Job: Samurai Orchestra Producer
First Appearance: SASUKE 2 (September 28, 1998)
Total Number of Competitions: 20

Naoki Iketaniphoto source: Sasukepedia

Naoki Iketani is one of the most consistent non-All-Star competitor on Japanese Ninja Warrior. Iketani first appeared in SASUKE 2 in 1998 and so far, has competed 20 times, including in the most recent competition in late 2019. Over the years, Iketani has done pretty well, often making it to the Third Stage. However, Iketani has yet to make it to the Final Stage, which is the reason why he isn’t an All-Star despite his strong performances.

Did You Know?

Naoki Iketani also competes on several Ninja Warrior spin-offs. Most notably, Pro Sportsman No. 1, which he won in 2005. Iketani also holds the record in the Monster Box event of Pro Sportsman with 23 boxes.


8. Bunpei Shiratori (September 13, 1967 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 46 years, 9 months, 20 days – SASUKE 30 (July 3, 2014)
Hometown:  Inba, Shiba Prefecture, Japan
Job: Health & Services Civil Employee
First Appearance: SASUKE 9 (March 16, 2002)
Total Number of Competitions: 12

photo source: Facebook

Along with Katsumi Yamada, Bunpei Shiratori is also a retired Japanese Ninja Warrior All-Star. Shiratori did not make his debut until SASUKE 9, but made a strong impression during his run. Throughout his time on the show, Shiratori often cleared the First Stage and made it to the Third Stage. Shiratori only made it to the Final Stage once during SASUKE 12. Although he officially retired after SASUKE 30 in 2014 because of his age and injuries, Shiratori said that he may return sometime in the future.

Did You Know?

Bunpei Shiratori holds the highest clear ratio for the First Stage out of the All-Stars, at an estimated 67% (8 out of 12 attempts).


7. Katushide Torisawa (c.1972 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 47 years – SASUKE 37 (November 24, 2019)
Hometown:  Unspecified
Job: Unspecified
First Appearance: SASUKE 18 (March 21, 2007)
Total Number of Competitions: 18

Katsuhide Torisawaphoto source: Sasukepedia

Katsuhide Torisawa has appeared in every Japanese Ninja Warrior since SASUKE 18. The most recent competition was in late 2019 when Torisawa was 47 years old. If he continues to participate in the show, Torisawa will end up moving up higher on this list. Torisawa can usually clear a few obstacles in the First Stage, but has become known for failing obstacles in funny ways. In fact, Torisawa has faceplanted a few times and fallen into the course’s water.

Did You Know?

Many competitors have some kind of gimmick that they show off at the starting line and Katsuhide Torisawa always likes to display his strength. Torisawa has done this by ripping off his shirt, crushing an apple and beer cans with one hand, and snapping a baseball bat in half.


6. Wakky aka Yasuhito Wakita (July 5, 1972 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 47 years, 4 months, 19 days – SASUKE 37 (November 24, 2019)
Hometown:  Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan
Job: Penalty Comedian
First Appearance: SASUKE 20 (March 26, 2008)
Total Number of Competitions: 9

Wakkyphoto source: asianwiki.com

Yasuhito Wakita better known as Wakky is another older comedian who has appeared on Japanese Ninja Warrior a few times. Surprisingly, Wakky has done fairly well and has cleared the First Stage a few times. Wakky competed in SASUKE 20 to 30 (except for SASUKE 26) before taking a five year break. He returned in the most recent competition in late 2019.

Did You Know?

In addition to regular Japanese Ninja Warrior, Wakky has competed on several spin-offs including Pro Sportsman No. 1 and Geinojin Sportsman No. 1 (an all celebrity version of Pro Sportsman), which Wakky won the last two competitions during the show’s run.


5. Akira Ōmori (September 19, 1968 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 51 years, 2 months, 5 days – SASUKE 37 (November 24, 2019)
Hometown:  Osaka, Japan
Job: Comedian
First Appearance: SASUKE 1 (September 27, 1997)
Total Number of Competitions: 10

Akira Omoriphoto source: asaikikaku.co.jp

Akira Ōmori is a comedian who is known for appearing on the early Japanese Ninja Warrior competitions. After competing on the first seven SASUKEs, Ōmori took a long hiatus from the show. Ōmori came back for SASUKE 23 and 24 and once again disappeared for a while. However, Ōmori returned in 2019 for SASUKE 37 and cleared the first few obstacles of the First Stage.

Did You Know?

Despite being a goofy guy with the nickname Monkikki or The Monkey, Akira Ōmori actually made it to the Final Stage in the first three Japanese Ninja Warrior Competitions, but could not clear the final obstacle.


4. Katsumi Yamada (October 22, 1965 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 51 years, 3 months, 21 days – SASUKE 33 (February 12, 2017)
Hometown:  Harima, Kako District, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan
Job: Former steelworker
First Appearance: SASUKE 1 (September 27, 1997)
Total Number of Competitions: 28

Katsumi Yamadaphoto source: Facebook

Katsumi Yamada is one of Japanese Ninja Warrior’s legendary players who competed on the very first competition in 1997. Yamada made a name for himself early on by clearing the First Stage in the first six shows. However, after SASUKE 7, he failed to pass the first stage and briefly retired before trying again. Yamada did stop competing again for a few years before returning for almost every competition between SASUKE 7 – 33. He finally retired for good in 2017.

Yamada did make it to the Final Stage in SASUKE 3, but failed to win. Despite not winning, Yamada is one of the most popular contestants ever and is a Japanese Ninja Warrior All-Star.

Did You Know?

Katsumi Yamada is a little hot-tempered and even got banned from competing in Japanese Ninja Warrior for a few years, but was allowed back for SASUKE 33, the show’s 20th anniversary.


3. Yasuo Aoki (1957 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 54 years – SASUKE 27 (August 22, 2011)
Hometown:  Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan
Job: Sculptor
First Appearance: SASUKE 13 (April 6, 2004)
Total Number of Competitions: 14

Yasuo Aokiphoto source: Sasukepedia

Yasuo Aoki is another older man who has competed on Japanese Ninja Warrior more than a dozen times despite never doing really well. In fact, even though Aoki was on the contest 14 times, he never ever cleared the first obstacle! Aoki has had two of his runs (SASUKE 25 and 26) from broadcast. He finally retired from the competition after SASUKE 27 when he was about 54 years old.

Did You Know?

Although Yasuo Aoki never made it past the first obstacle in the regular Japanese Ninja Warrior competition, he did finally conquer the first obstacle of VIKING 2, a Ninja Warrior spin-off.


2. Kenjirō Ishimaru (November 1, 1953 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 61 years, 8 months – SASUKE 31 (July 1, 2015)
Hometown:  Ōita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan
Job: Actor and TV host/narrator
First Appearance: SASUKE 9 (March 16, 2002)
Total Number of Competitions: 16

Kenjiro Ishimaruphoto source: asianwiki.com

Kenjirō Ishimaru is one of many Japanese actors to compete on Japanese Ninja Warrior several times, taking the competition fairly seriously while still having fun. Ishimaru has been on the show 16 different times, most recently in 2015 when he was 61 years old. Typically, Ishimaru has not done that well on Japanese Ninja Warrior, but he did almost clear the First Stage twice, only losing on the final obstacle the Rope Climb.

Did You Know?

Kenjirō Ihshimaru is only one of two competitors who has taken the log down with them as they’ve fallen off the Rolling Log obstacle in Japanese Ninja Warrior’s First Stage.


1. Minoru Kuramochi (November 16, 1947 – Present)

Age at Most Recent or Last Competition: 64 years, 11 months – SASUKE 28 (October 2012)
Hometown:  Tokyo, Japan
Job: Edokko Pub Owner
First Appearance: SASUKE 9 (March 16, 2002)
Total Number of Competitions: 18

photo source: Facebook

Minoru Kuramochi last appeared on SASUKE 28 in 2012 when he was nearly 65 years old, which makes him the oldest contestant ever on Japanese Ninja Warrior. Although Kuramochi made a total of 18 appearances on Japanese Ninja Warrior, he usually failed on the first obstacle. The best that he ever did was making it to the third obstacle during SASUKE 26, which was recorded back in late 2010. While not a winner, Kuramochi is one of the game’s most popular contestants because of his eccentric energy.

Did You Know?

Minoru Kuramochi is nicknamed Tako Tencho (Mr. Octopus) because he always brought an octopus with him onto the starting line as a nod to the fact that he owns a pub that serves octopus.

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10 Oldest Trees in America

The United States is one of the largest countries in the world and home to numerous protected forests. Inside of these forests are some of the biggest, tallest, and oldest trees in the world. All of the trees on this list are several thousands of years old and nearly all of them are still alive! A majority of these trees are giant sequoias or bristlecone pones, which are the oldest non-clonal trees in the world. The two oldest trees in America are large clonal colonies that have survived for tens of thousands of years by making copies of itself to survive.

10. Washington

Age: about 2,850 years
Location:  Giant Forest Grove, Giant Sequoia National Park, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes, but severely damaged

Washingtonphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Although the Washington tree may look like one of the saddest trees in the world, it appears to be hanging on. Until 2005, the Washington was the second largest tree in the world – just after General Sherman – towering at 254 feet (77.4 meters). The Washington is also one of the oldest trees at 2,850 years of age. Damage from storms and fires ravaged the Washington tree and it is now only about 115 feet (35 meters) tall. Despite the extensive damage, the Washington still has a few significant branches and might be able to survive for many more years.

Did You Know?

In 1999, when the Washington was extensively studied, researchers discovered that the tree was mostly hollow, which led them reduce the Washington’s estimated volume to 49,550 cubic feet (1,403 m³).


9. Grizzly Giant

Current Age (as of 2020): about 3,000
Location:  Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes

photo source: Flickr via Guiseppe Milo

The Grizzly Giant, located in Yosemite National Park, is one of the few notable sequoias outside of Sequoia National Park. This ancient tree is about 3,000 years old and is the oldest tree in Yosemite. Although its the oldest, Grizzly Giant is only the second larges tree in Yosemite by volume. Grizzly Giant has a volume of with a volume of 34,010 cubic feet (963 m³). This is relatively small by giant redwood standards, and the Grizzly Giant is only the 25th largest sequoia in the world.

Did You Know?

Grizzly Giant was originally named the Grizzled Giant in 1859 by publisher James M. Hutchings, at the suggestion of naturalist Galen Clark.


8. Bennett Juniper

Current Age (as of 2020): 3,000 to 6,000 years
Location:  Stanislaus National Forest, Tuolumne County, California
Species:  Western Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)
Still Alive:  Yes

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Bennett Juniper is the largest juniper in the U.S. at nearly 80 feet (24.4 meters) tall and the oldest known juniper in the world, ranging in age from 3,000 to 6,000 years old. In the past, core samples have shown that the Bennett Juniper is at least 3,000 years old. However, the samples also indicate that the Bennett Juniper is partially hollow, making it difficult to get an accurate measure of its age. This is why some naturalists argue that the Bennett Juniper might actually be over 6,000 years old!

Did You Know?

The Bennett Juniper is named for naturalist Clarence Bennett, who first studied the tree in the 1890s and pushed for having the tree protected and studied.


7. The President

Current Age (as of 2020): 3,200 years
Location:  Sequoia National Park, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes

The Presidentphoto source: Flickr via Nick Doty

The President is the oldest known living sequoia or giant redwood in the world. Currently, the President is over 3,200 years old and barring a terrible accident, this tree will only get older. In addition to being one of the oldest trees, the President is the world’s second largest tree by volume. As of 2012, the volume of the President’s trunk was about 45,000 cubic feet (1,300 m³), with an additional 9,000 cubic feet (250 m³) of branches.

Did You Know?

The President was named after President Warren G. Harding in 1923 and nearby sequoias were also named after the American government, including the Congress Group, two dense stands of medium-sized sequoias that represent the “House” and “Senate.”


6. The Senator

Current Age (as of 2020): about 3,500 years
Location:  Big Tree Park, Longwood, Florida
Species:  Pond Cypress (Taxodium ascendens)
Still Alive:  No

The Senatorphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Like a few of the other ancient trees on this list, the Senator also had an untimely death in 2012 when a crystal meth addict decided to smoke inside of the tree and things went wrong. The woman’s fire grew out of control and the Senator burned from the inside out “like a chimney,” according to several news reports.

The Senator was believed to be about 3,500 years old at the time of its death and was the oldest and biggest bald cypress tree in the world. It stood 125 feet (38 meters) tall, with a trunk diameter of 17.5 feet (5.3 meters).

Did You Know?

Thankfully, the Senator had been cloned and a 50-foot-tall clone dubbed “The Phoenix” was planted in Big Tree Park and a second clone was placed at the park’s entrance.


5. Muir Snag

Current Age (as of 2020): Over 3,500 years
Location:  Converse Basin Grove, Giant Sequoia National Monument, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  No

Muir Snagphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Before being destroyed by logging between 1892 to 1918, the Converse Basin Grove was the second largest giant sequoia grove in the world. Although thousands of trees were lost, several large and notable sequoias were left standing, including the Muir Snag. Much of the Muir Snag is gone and the tree is now dead. However, it is estimated that the Muir Snag was over 3,500 years old when it died. Researchers were able to count the tree’s rings through a large fire scar at its base.

Did You Know?

The Muir Snag was named for John Muir, who was a naturalist, author, environmental philosopher, glaciologist, and one of the first people to advocate for the preservation of the U.S. wilderness. Muir was the first person to count the Muir Snag’s rings.


4. Methuselah

Current Age (as of 2020): 4,852 years
Location:  White Mountains, Inyo County, California
Species:  Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
Still Alive:  Yes

Methuselahphoto source: Flickr via Clinton Steeds

Since Prometheus is dead and Pando and the Jurupa Oak are clonal colonies, technically, Methuselah is the oldest living (non-clonal) tree in the world. While the Methuselah Trail is open to the public, Methuselah’s exact location is a closely guarded secret.

When core samples were first taken from Methuselah in 1957, researchers discovered that it was about 4,789 years old. This means that Methuselah is 4,852 years old today and researchers say that the tree is still alive for the time being.

Did You Know?

Given Methuselah’s age, the tree germinated sometime around 2832 BCE, making it older than the Egyptian pyramids!


3. Prometheus

Current Age (as of 2020): 4,862 to over 5,000 years
Location:  Wheeler Peak, Nevada
Species:  Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
Still Alive:  No

Prometheusphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Until 1964, Prometheus was one of the oldest known non-clonal organisms in the world. Unfortunately, Prometheus, which was well over 4,000 years old and possibly over 5,000 years old at the time, was unwittingly cut down by geographer Donald R. Currey.

Currey was given permission from the United States Forest Service to take core samples from the bristlecone pines in the area. No one knows for sure what happened next as accounts vary, but for whatever reason, Currey ended up cutting Prometheus down and only left behind a stump.

Did You Know?

While cutting down Prometheus was a tragedy, it did lead to some good as many people feel that this incident was a big factor in the movement to protect bristlecone pines, especially the Wheeler Park grove, which gained national park status in the 1980s.


2. Jurupa Oak

Current Age (as of 2020): over 13,000 years
Location:  Jurupa Mountains, Riverside County, California
Species:  Palmer’s Oak (Quercus palmeri)
Still Alive:  Yes

Jurupa Oakphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Like Pando, the Jurupa Oak in California is a clonal colony that has survived for thousands of years by continuously making copies of itself after a wildfire. Currently, the Jurupa Oak is over 13,000 years old and spreads across a thicket about 2,152.78 square feet (200 square meters) in area.

For whatever reason, the Jurupa Oak has managed to survive the changing climate in the area. Palmer’s Oaks are not usually found in such a dry, low altitude spot and prefer more mountainous, cooler, and wetter locations.

Did You Know?

In recent years, the descendants of the Gabrieleño tribe have tried to raise awareness over the importance of the Jurupa Oak, which is located in the easternmost borderlands of the Gabrieleño’s historic territory. Gabrieleño descendants believe that their ancestors celebrated the Jurupa Oak and want the tree to be protected.


1. Pando

Current Age (as of 2020): over 80,000 years old
Location:  Fishlake National Forest, Utah
Species:  Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)
Still Alive:  Yes

photo source: Flickr Public Domain

Pando might look like a giant grove of individual trees, but it is actually one massive clonal colony that is over 80,000 years old! This means that all the “trees” in the Pando grove are actually just stems sharing one underground root system. Since all the trees are just clones, Pando is the oldest tree in America. It is also one of the oldest living organisms on Earth.

It is estimated that there are over 40,000 individual trees in the Pando system and some of these trees are over 130 years old. While Pando is still alive for now, scientists have noticed that Pando is showing signs of decline, primarily caused by human activities.

Did You Know?

Since its difficult to determine a tree’s exact age based on its roots instead of tree rings, some scientists think that Pando’s age might actually be closer to 1 million years.

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10 Oldest College Bowl Games

College bowl games are pretty much a staple of American life. The first bowl games emerged not long after American football started to increase in popularity. Most of these early bowl games aren’t around, but the Rose Bowl has been going strong for over 100 years! The other bowl games have been played annually for several decades.

10. Fiesta Bowl

Year Established: 1971
Location:  Glendale, Arizona
Venue:  State Farm Stadium
Title Sponsor:  PlayStation
Payout:  $4 Million per team

Fiesta Bowlphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Fiesta Bowl was started in 1971 because the Western Athletic Conference (WAC) was upset when its champions were not invited to any bowl games. Initially, the Fiesta Bowl guaranteed an invite for the WAC’s winner. This tie-in to the WAC ended in 1978 when Arizona and Arizona State moved to the then-Pac-10 conference (now the Pac-12). Since 2014, the Fiesta Bowl has become a member of College Football Playoff (CFP) and is the youngest of the six CFP bowls.

Did You Know?

Along with some of the other bowl games, the Fiesta Bowl holds an annual parade before the game. The Fiesta Bowl Parade was started in 1973.


9. Peach Bowl

Year Established: 1968
Location:  Atlanta, Georgia
Venue:  Mercedes-Benz Stadium
Title Sponsor:  Chick-fil-A
Payout:  $4 Million per team

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Peach Bowl, officially the Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl has been around since 1968 and is played in Atlanta, Georgia (“The Peach State”). Originally, the Peach Bowl was held as fundraising event for the Lions Club of Georgia. Like a few of the other bowl games on this list, the Peach Bowl wasn’t popular right away. Eventually, the Peach Bowl picked up steam and its now one of the six College Football Playoff bowl games. Since 1997, the Peach Bowl has been sponsored by Chick-fil-A.

Did You Know?

The Peach Bowl is one of the most competitive bowl games, with 53 percent of its games being decided by a touchdown or less.


8. Liberty Bowl

Year Established: 1959
Location:  Memphis, Tennessee
Venue:  Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium
Title Sponsor:  AutoZone
Payout:  $4.7 Million (total)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Liberty Bowl was created in 1959 by A. F. “Bud” Dudley, a former Villanova athletic director, in Philadelphia. The history of Philadelphia and the Liberty Bell were the inspiration for the Liberty Bowl’s name and logo.

After five years in Philadelphia, the Liberty Bowl was moved to Atlantic City. The Liberty Bowl remained there until the game was move to its current home in Memphis in 1965. Since then, the Liberty Bowl has been played in the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, formerly the Memphis Memorial Stadium.

Did You Know?

While the Liberty Bowl was in Atlantic City, the game was played in Atlantic City’s Convention Hall, making it the first major bowl game played indoors.


7. Citrus Bowl

Year Established: 1947
Location:  Orlando, Florida
Venue:  Camping World Stadium
Title Sponsor:  Vrbo
Payout:  $8,224,578 (total)

Citrus Bowlphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Citrus Bowl has been played annually since 1947 when the game’s sponsors, members of Elks Lodge #1079 of Orlando, each put up $100 to fund initial expenses. Like the other bowl games, the Citrus Bowl has had many transformations and was previously known as the Tangerine Bowl and the Florida Citrus Bowl. Since 1993, the the bowl has hosted top teams from the Big Ten and Southeastern conferences. The Citrus bowl is the largest of the non-College Football Playoff (CFP) bowls.

Did You Know?

Almost every Citrus Bowl since 1985 has featured two teams ranked in the NCAA’s Top 25.


6. Gator Bowl

Year Established: 1946
Location:  Jacksonville, Florida
Venue:  TIAA Bank Field
Title Sponsor:  TaxSlayer
Payout:  $5.35 Million (total)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

The Gator Bowl, officially called the TaxSlayer Gator Bowl, got off to a slow start in 1946 after many people had tried to organize a Jacksonville bowl game for many years. For the first few years, the Gator Bowl did not attract many fans and the games went undersold. By the fourth Gator Bowl, things picked up and tens of thousands of people showed up to the game. The Gator Bowl has since grown into one of the most popular non-championship bowl games.

Did You Know?

In 1955, the Gator Bowl was the first college bowl game to be broadcast on national television.


5. Cotton Bowl Classic

Year Established: 1937
Location:  Arlington, Texas
Venue:  AT&T Stadium
Title Sponsor:  Goodyear
Payout:  $6 Million per team

Cotton Bowlphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Cotton Bowl Classic dates back to 1937 when Texas oil tycoon J. Curtis Sanford came up with the idea of a Texas bowl game and decided to finance the game himself. Sanford guaranteed that each team that played at his Cotton Bowl would receive $10,000.

In the past, the Cotton Bowl hosted the champion of the Southwest Conference (SWC) against a team invited from elsewhere in the country. After the SWC was disbanded in 1996, the Cotton Bowl was played between a runner-up from the Big 12 Conference and a Southeastern Conference team. Since 2014, the Cotton Bowl has been one of the six bowls in the College Football Playoff (CFP).

Did You Know?

Until 2010, the Cotton Bowl Classic was played at its namesake stadium in Dallas, the Cotton Bowl, which first opened in 1930.


4. Sun Bowl

Year Established: 1935
Location:  El Paso, Texas
Venue:  Sun Bowl Stadium
Title Sponsor:  Kellog’s
Payout:  $4.55 Million (total)

Sun Bowlphoto source: Flickr via Visit El Paso

The first Sun Bowl – which was also played on January 1, 1935 like the Orange Bowl and Sugar Bowl – was held as a fundraising event for an El Paso service club and was played between high school teams. The following year, the Sun Bowl became a college bowl game.

The Sun Bowl is the oldest postseason bowl game and is not played as a championship. Since 2011, the bowl has been contested between teams from the Pac-12 Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC).

Did You Know?

In 2019, Kellog’s became the title sponsor of the Sun Bowl and officially the game is now called the Tony the Tiger Sun Bowl in honor of Kellog’s famous Frosted Flakes mascot.


3. Sugar Bowl

Year Established: 1935
Location:  New Orleans, Louisiana
Venue:  Mercedes-Benz Superdome
Title Sponsor:  Allstate
Payout:  $4 Million per team

Sugar Bowlphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

After the success of the Rose Bowl and the Festival of Palms Bowl (predecessor of the Orange Bowl), Colonel James M. Thomson, publisher of the New Orleans Item, and Sports Editor Fred Digby wanted New Orleans to have a New Year’s Day football game of its own. For the next few years, Digby tried to garner support and finally in 1935, New Orleans was ready to host the first Sugar Bowl. Since then, the Sugar Bowl has been held annually in New Orleans (except for in 2006 when the game had to be moved to the Georgia Dome in Atlanta, Georgia because of the extensive damage of Hurricane Katrina).

Did You Know?

There actually is a “Sugar Bowl,” which is a solid silver trophy made in 1830 that was gifted to the New Orleans Mid-Winter Sports Association by the Waldhorn Company, Inc. in 1935. This silver trophy is featured all over the Sugar Bowl as its logo and the Sugar Bowl trophy (it’s a replica of the real Sugar Bowl).


2. Orange Bowl

Year Established: 1935
Location:  Miami Gardens, Florida
Venue:  Hard Rock Stadium
Title Sponsor:  Capital One
Payout:  $35 million per conference

Orange Bowlphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Along with the Sugar Bowl and the Sun Bowl, the Orange Bowl is the second oldest bowl game in the U.S. All three of these bowl games were first played on January 1, 1935 and are still around today. The Orange Bowl is one of the New Year’s Six games, the top bowl games for the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. Currently, the Orange Bowl is sponsored by Capital One and played at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida.

Did You Know?

Technically, the Orange Bowl has been around since 1932, but the first few games known as the Festival of Palms Bowl, are not recognized as official bowl games by the NCAA because one team was guaranteed a spot in the game regardless of record.


1. Rose Bowl

Year Established: 1902; played annually since 1916
Location:  Pasadena, California
Venue:  Rose Bowl
Title Sponsor:  Northwestern Mutual
Payout:  $35 Million per conference (around $4 Million per team)

Rose Bowlphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Rose Bowl, aptly nicknamed “The Granddaddy of Them All,” was first played in 1902, making it the oldest college bowl game in the United States. While the football was played at the first Rose Bowl tournament in 1902, it was removed from the tournament’s roster for over a decade. Football was permanently added back to the Rose Bowl in 1916 and even with this date, the Rose Bowl is still the oldest operating bowl game. Today, the Rose Bowl is the most popular of the college bowl games and serves as the championship game between the Big Ten and Pac – 12 conferences.

Did You Know?

The reason football was removed from the Rose Bowl after 1902 was because the game was a complete blowout. Roman-style chariot races and ostrich races replaced football for 14 years.

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10 Oldest Cities in Europe

Europe has a well-documented and studied history and many of its cities have been inhabited for thousands of years. This is true of all of the cities on this list, which have served as important economic, political, and cultural centers during various time periods. All of these cities are home to historical landmarks and remains left by their previous rulers and are some of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.

10. Chania

Year Founded: c. 1600 BCE
Location:  Northern Coast of Crete
[ Historical Region:  Crete
Area:  351.3 km² (135.6 sq mi)-municipality; 12.56 km² (4.85 sq mi)-municipal unit
Current Population:  108,642-municipality; 53,910-municipal unit (2011)

Chaniaphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Chania is the one of the most important cities in Crete and was the site of a Minoan settlement that the Greeks called Kydonia (or Cydonia). Many architectural remains from this time period can be seen around Chania today. Chania has been ruled by the Byzantines, Arabs, Venetians, Ottomans, and of course the Greeks.

Did You Know?

During World War II, Chania was invaded and occupied by German forces and many of the city’s citizens were imprisoned or executed for their resistance against German rule.


9. Mantua

Year Founded: c. 2000 BCE
Location:  Lombardy, Italy
[ Historical Region:  Po Valley
Area:  63.97 km² (24.70 sq mi)
Current Population:  49,308 (2017)

Mantuaphoto source: Wikimedia Commons via ildirettore

Mantua is typically known for its status as one of the jewels of Italy’s Renaissance period and its ties to the noble Gonzaga family, who ruled the city for several centuries. However, Mantua has been around since at least 2000 BCE and is one of the oldest cities in Italy.

During its height, Mantua one of the main artistic, cultural, and especially musical hubs of Italy. Additionally, Mantua is the birthplace of opera as the oldest opera still regularly performed, Claudio Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo was composed for the Court of Mantua in the early 17th century. For its historical importance to culture and art, Mantua was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Did You Know?

Mantua is featured in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet as the city where Romeo is banished to.


8. Nicosia

Year Founded: c. 2500 BCE
Location:  Mesoria Plain, Republic of Cyprus
[ Historical Region:  Mycenaean Greece
Area:  111.01 km² (42.86 sq mi)
Current Population:  116,392-capital city (North and South); 326,739-urban (North and South)

Nicosiaphoto source: Flickr via sk12

Nicosia has been the capital of Cyprus since the 10th century CE, but the city’s history dates back to around 2500 BCE. It is the only Bronze Age settlement in Cyprus that has survived to this day. Like all of the ancient cities on this list, Nicosia has been occupied by many different people over the years.

Today, Nicosia is still facing some conflict as the city is split in half and claimed by the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. Technically, Nicosia is the capital of the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus. However, Nicosia also serves as the capital of Northern Cyprus, which is only recognized by Turkey and seen as occupied territory by the rest of the world.

Did You Know?

Culturally, Cyprus is Greek, however, the country is actually an independent nation and a part of the European Union.


7. Thebes

Year Founded: c. 3000 BCE
Location:  Boeotia, Central Greece
[ Historical Region:  Mycenaean Greece
Area:  830.112 km² (320.508 sq mi)-municipality; 321.015 km² (123.945 sq mi)-municipal unit
Current Population:  36,477-municipality; 25,845-municipal unit (2011)

Thebesphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Along with Athens, Thebes is one of the greatest historical cities in Greece. Thebes is about as old as Athens and has been inhabited since around 3000 BCE. Not only does Thebes boast real Greek history, the city was the setting for many Greek myths, including the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus, Heracles (Hercules), and many more.

With Athens as its rival during ancient times, Thebes was also influential. Thebes peaked in the early 4th century when it was the most powerful city in Greece. This dominance was short-lived, however, and today Thebes is a much quieter city than cosmopolitan Athens.

Did You Know?

During the second Persian invasion of Greece led by Xerxes during the late 5th century BCE, Thebes actually sided with the Persians and famously ended the power of Sparta the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE.


6. Athens

Year Founded: c. 3000 BCE
Location:  Attica, Central Greece
[ Historical Region:  Mycenaean Greece
Area:  38.964 km² (15.044 sq mi)-municipality; 412 km² (159 sq mi)-urban; 2,928.71 km² (1,130.784 sq mi)-metro
Current Population:  664,068-municipality; 3,090,508-urban; 3,781,274-metro (2012)

Athens, Greecephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Athens is undoubtedly the most historical city in Greece and one of the most important cities ever in Western history. It is considered the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy. Athens has been continuously inhabited for over 5,000 years and became a powerful center of the Mycenaean civilization by 1400 BCE.

While Athens has had many transformations, the city has always been a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political, and cultural life in Greece. Additionally, Athens is home to countless ancient landmarks and is one of the most visited cities in the world.

Did You Know?

Athens has the most theatrical stages in the world, with 148 stages across the city.


5. Varna

Year Founded: c. 4600 BCE
Location:  Gulf of Varna, Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria
[ Historical Region:  Thrace
Area:  238 km² (92 sq mi)
Current Population:  336,505 (418,108 urban area) (2017)

Varnaphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Varna, which is situated on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast has always been an important important port city due to its strategic location. Like a few of the other cities in the region, people have settled in Varna since prehistoric times.

Eventually, Varna became a major urban center when it was established as a seaside settlement by the Thracians. Since then, Varna has been a major hub for business, transportation, education, tourism, entertainment, and healthcare. Varna is also the maritime capital of Bulgaria and is home of the headquarters of the Bulgarian Navy and merchant marine.

Did You Know?

The oldest gold treasure in the world was discovered in Varna Necroplis and dates to 4600 – 4200 BCE.


4. Bratislava

Year Founded: c. 5000 BCE
Location:  Southwestern Slovakia
[ Historical Region:  Pannonia
Area:  367.584 km² (141.925 sq mi)
Current Population:  432,864 (2018)

Bratislavaphoto source: Good Free Photos

Due to the nature of Slovakia’s history of being dominated by other nations, most notably the Soviet Union, Bratislava, the country’s capital city, is technically the youngest capital in Europe. However, Bratislava’s history goes back much further than when Slovakia was formed in 1993. Like a few of the other cities on this list, Bratislava was home to a permanent Neolithic settlement from around 5000 BCE.

Over the years, Bratislava was conquered and influenced by the Austrians, Bulgarians, Croats, Germans, Hungarians, Jews, Serbs, Czechs, and Slovaks. With such a rich history, Bratislava has become one of the richest regions of the European Union.

Did You Know?

Bratislava is a pretty popular tourist destination and receives more than 1 million visitors each year.


3. Nitra

Year Founded: c. 5000 BCE
Location:  Nitra River Valley, Slovakia
[ Historical Region:  Pannonia
Area:  100.48 km² (38.80 sq mi)
Current Population:  76,655 (201)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Along with Bratislava, Nitra is one of the oldest cities in Slovakia and has been continuously inhabited since Neolithic times (5,000 to 7,000 years ago). In fact, Slovakia considers Nitra to be the country’s oldest city. There is even archaeological evidence that suggests people have lived (on and off) in the area around Nitra as far back as 30,000 to 25,000 years ago.

Many different peoples have lived in Nitra and the first Slavs arrived in the 5th century CE. Nitra has had various levels of importance over the years and it is currently the seat and political center of the Nitra District.

Did You Know?

Similar to Rome, Nitra is located in a valley surrounded by seven hills: Zobor, Castle Hill, the Calvary, Čermáň, Borin, Vŕšok, and Martin’s Hill.


2. Argos

Year Founded: c. 5000 BCE
Location:  Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece
[ Historical Region:  Mycenaean Greece
Area:  138.138 km² (53.33 sq mi)
Current Population:  22,209 (2011)

Argosphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

While the entire country of Greece has a rich history, Argos was one of the first city-states or polis of Ancient Greece and has a history stretching back even further. Near the foot of Aspida hill is evidence of a late Neolithic village, which shows that the Argos has been continuously inhabited since at least 5000 BCE.

Argos became a major Mycenaean settlement in the Late Bronze Age and remained an important city throughout the Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman periods. The Visigoths sacked and destroyed Argos in the 4th century CE, but people continued to live in the city. Today, Argos is a major center in southern Greece.

Did You Know?

Argos is featured in many Greek myths and was named for King Argus (or Argus), the son of Zeus and Niobe.


1. Plovdiv

Year Founded: c. 6000 BCE
Location:  South-Central Bulgaria
[ Historical Region:  Thrace
Area:  101.98 km² (39.37 sq mi)
Current Population:  346,893 (675,000 in the greater metropolitan area) (2018)

Plovdivphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

People have been continuously living in Plovdiv since at least 6000 BCE, making Plovdiv the oldest city in Europe. There are archaeological remains all over Plovdiv that show people have settled in the area for over 8,000 years. During the city’s long history it has been conquered by several different peoples, including the Thracians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Ottoman Turks, Persians, Slavs, Huns, Celts, and Bulgarians. Each one of the these groups left a lasting impact on Plovdiv, which was, and still is an important cultural, economic, and educational center as well as transport hub.

Did You Know?

One of Plovdiv’s most famous landmarks is the Ancient Roman Theatre, which was built over 2,000 years ago and is still used as a concert venue today.

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10 Oldest Trees in California

California is home to some of the largest and most famous trees in the world, the Giant Sequoias of the Sierra Nevada. Not only are these trees some of the largest in the world, they are also some of the oldest. Nearly all of the trees on this list are Giant Sequoias, but the two oldest are a Palmer’s oak and Great Basin Bristlecone Pine. All of these trees have survived for thousands of years and fortunately most are still alive.

10. General Sherman

Age: 2,300 to 2,700 years
Location:  Giant Forest, Giant Sequoia National Park, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes

General Shermanphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Of all the trees on this list and the world, the General Sherman is perhaps the most famous. This is because the General Sherman is the largest known living (single stem) tree in the world by volume. General Sherman is 275 feet (83 meters) tall, and is over 36 feet (11 meters) in diameter at the base. The estimated volume of General Sherman is 52,508 cubic feet (1,487 m³). To go along with its impressive size, General Sherman is also one of the oldest living trees with an estimated age of 2,300 to 2,700 years.

Did You Know?

In the past, General Sherman was also known as the Pin Cushion Tree because visitors competed to see who could pin a dart (with their name attached) highest on the tree.


9. Mother of the Forest

Age: over 2,500 years
Location:  Calaveras Grove, Big Tree State Park, Calaveras County, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  No

Mother of the Forestphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

While a few of the other trees on this list have been in tough situations that have irreparably damaged them, none have faced as tragic of a demise as the Mother of the Forest. This beautiful and ancient tree’s massive size – said to have been 328 feet (100 meters) tall and 93 feet (28 meters) in girth – was both a blessing and a curse.

Of course, the Mother of the Forest garnered a lot of attention and a man named George Gale decided that he wanted to show the world just how grand Mother of the Forest was. Gale removed over 60 tons of bark from Mother of the Forest and had it reassembled in London’s Crystal Palace as an exhibit that raked in a ton of money. Because its bark had been stripped, the remainder of Mother of the Forest burned up in a fire in 1908. Mother of the Forest was over 2,500 years old at the time of its death.

Did You Know?

The only good thing to come out of the destruction of Mother of the Forest and other big trees in the area was a move toward conservation efforts, which eventually became the Yosemite Grant that protects the Giant Sequoias of California.


8. Robert E. Lee

Age: about 2,600 years
Location:  General Grant Grove, Kings Canyon National Park, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes

Robert E. Leephoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Robert E. Lee tree, not to be confused with the General Lee in the nearby Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park, is the second largest tree in General Grant Grove and all of Kings Canyon National Park. This giant sequoia stands at 254.7 feet (77.7 meters) and is overall one of the largest/tallest trees in the world. The Robert E. Lee is currently over 2,600 years old.

Did You Know?

The Robert E. Lee was named by Richard Field, a Confederate lieutenant in 1875 in honor of Robert E. Lee, commander of the Confederate Army.


7. Washington

Age: about 2,850 years
Location:  Giant Forest Grove, Giant Sequoia National Park, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes, but severely damaged

Washingtonphoto source: Monumental Trees

Before part of its crown was lost in a fire in 2003, Washington was the world’s second tallest tree, after General Sherman, at 254 feet (77.4 meters). Washington was reduced to 229 feet (69.8 meters) and still one of the tallest trees. Unfortunately, in 2005, Washington was severely damaged again following winter storms. Since then, Washington is only about 115 feet (35 meters) tall. While it may not be that tall anymore, Washington is still quite old and is estimated to be about 2,850 years old.

Did You Know?

The Washington still has about a half dozen significant branches of foliage, so technically the tree is still alive and scientists don’t know if it will die soon or live for many more centuries.


6. Grizzly Giant

Age: about 3,000 years
Location:  Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes

Grizzly Giantphoto source: Flickr via Steve DaCosta

The Grizzly Giant is the only giant sequoia on this list found outside of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park. Instead of being one of many famous redwoods from those parks, Grizzly Giant is the star of nearby Yosemite National Park. In the past, Grizzly Giant’s age was estimated to be less than 2,500 years, but in 2019 refined scientific dating methods upped Grizzly Giant’s age closer to 3,000 years.

Did You Know?

Grizzly Giant has a volume of about of 34,005 cubic feet (962.9 m3). While this might seem like a lot, Grizzly Giant is only the 25th largest tree in the world by volume.


5. Bennett Juniper

Age: 3,000 to 6,000 years
Location:  Stanislaus National Forest, Tuolumne County, California
Species:  Western Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)
Still Alive:  Yes

Bennett Juniperphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Bennett Juniper is one of the few ancient trees of California that is not a redwood (although the Bennett Juniper is owned and protected by the Save the Redwoods League). Although there are core samples of the Bennett Juniper, its exact age is unknown. The core samples revealed that part of the Bennett Juniper is hollow, but it is estimated that the tree is anywhere between 3,000 to 6,000 years old. The Bennett Juniper is the oldest known juniper tree in the world.

Did You Know?

Like many of the other old trees on this list, the Bennett Juniper is not only old, but it is also impressively tall. The Bennett Juniper stands at over 86 feet (26.2 meters) and is the largest juniper in America.


4. The President

Age: about 3,200 years
Location:  Giant Sequoia National Park, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  Yes

The Presidentphoto source: Flickr via daveynin

The President, which was named after President Warren G. Harding in 1923, is the oldest living redwood in the world. Currently, The President is over 3,200 years old and is still getting older since it’s still living. Not only is The President one of the oldest trees, it’s the world’s second largest tree by volume of trunk, which is about 45,000 cubic feet (1,300 m³), with an additional 9,000 cubic feet (250 m³) of branches.

Did You Know?

Despite its advanced age, The President is still growing rapidly and its yearly output of wood is greater than that of younger trees.


3. Muir Snag

Age: More than 3,500 years old
Location:  Converse Basin Grove, Giant Sequoia National Monument, Sierra Nevada, California
Species:  Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)
Still Alive:  No

Muir Snagphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Muir Snag, discovered by and named for famous environmentalist and naturalist John Muir, is the oldest Giant Sequoia or redwood tree ever found. The unfortunately dead tree is estimated to have been over 3,500 years old at the time of its death.

Although Muir Snag is dead, the tree is still standing in the Converse Basin Grove. It is one of the few remaining trees in the Converse Basin, which used to the second largest giant sequoia grove in the world before it was devastated by logging.

Did You Know?

John Muir was able to determine the Muir Snag’s age by counting the tree’s rings visible through a giant fire scar. Muir initially counted 4,000 rings, but subsequent counts have lowered the trees age by a few hundred years.


2. Methuselah

Age: 4,851
Location:  White Mountains, Inyo County, California
Species:  Great Basin Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva)
Still Alive:  Yes

Methuselahphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

Since the Jurupa Oak is technically several cloned trees, Methuselah is often cited as the oldest individual tree (or non-clonal organism) in the world. Methuselah is a Great Basin bristlecone pine in California’s White Mountains that germinated sometime around 2833 BCE!

Methuselah’s current age is based on core samples taken in 1957 by by Edmund Schulman and Tom Harlan. The core samples showed that Methuselah was about 4,789 years old at the time and surprisingly the tree is still alive.

Did You Know?

Numerous people have probably walked by or even taken a photograph of Methuselah without knowing since its exact location is a closely guarded secret. The tree is located somewhere in the Methuselah Grove of the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest.


1. Jurupa Oak

Age: over 13,000 years
Location:  Jurupa Mountains, Riverside County, California
Species:  Palmer’s Oak (Quercus palmeri)
Still Alive:  Yes

Jurupa Oakphoto source: Wikimedia Commons

The Jurupa Oak, located in the Jurupa Mountains of California, is a colonal colony of Palmer’s oak estimated to be over 13,000 years old – this makes the Jurupa Oak the oldest tree in California. Palmer’s oak do not look like typical oaks and instead resemble small trees or shrubs. The Jurupa Oak has managed to survive so long by continuously cloning itself from time to time. Another unique thing about the Jurupa Oak is that it’s the only Palmer’s oak in the area as plant tends to grow in more temperate conditions.

Did You Know?

The Jurupa Oak only reproduces (clones itself) after a fire. New shoots grow on the scorched branches.

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